Tiotropium bromide exerts anti-inflammatory effects during resistive breathing, an experimental model of severe airway obstruction
Authors Toumpanakis D, Loverdos K, Tzouda V, Vassilakopoulou V, Litsiou E, Magkou C, Karavana V, Pieper M, Vassilakopoulos T
Received 29 March 2017
Accepted for publication 19 June 2017
Published 28 July 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 2207—2220
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell
Dimitrios Toumpanakis,1,2 Konstantinos Loverdos,1,2 Vassiliki Tzouda,1,2 Vyronia Vassilakopoulou,1,2 Eleni Litsiou,1,2 Christina Magkou,3 Vassiliki Karavana,1,2 Michael Pieper,4 Theodoros Vassilakopoulos1,2
1First Critical Care Department, Pulmonary Unit, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Medical School, Evangelismos General Hospital, 2George P. Livanos and Marianthi Simou Laboratories, Thorax Foundation, 3Department of Pathology, Evangelismos General Hospital, Athens, Greece; 4Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG Div. Research Germany, Biberach, Germany
Introduction: Resistive breathing (RB), a hallmark of obstructive airway diseases, is characterized by strenuous contractions of the inspiratory muscles that impose increased mechanical stress on the lung. RB is shown to induce pulmonary inflammation in previous healthy animals. Tiotropium bromide, an anticholinergic bronchodilator, is also shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects. The effect of tiotropium on RB-induced pulmonary inflammation is unknown.
Methods: Adult rats were anesthetized, tracheostomized and breathed spontaneously through a two-way non-rebreathing valve. Resistances were connected to the inspiratory and/or expiratory port, to produce inspiratory resistive breathing (IRB) of 40% or 50% Pi/Pi,max (40% and 50% IRB), expiratory resistive breathing (ERB) of 60% Pe/Pe,max (60% ERB) or combined resistive breathing (CRB) of both 40% Pi/Pi,max and 60% Pe/Pe,max (40%/60% CRB). Tiotropium aerosol was inhaled prior to RB. After 6 h of RB, mechanical parameters of the respiratory system were measured and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed. IL-1β and IL-6 protein levels were measured in lung tissue. Lung injury was estimated histologically.
Results: In all, 40% and 50% IRB increased macrophage and neutrophil counts in BAL and raised IL-1β and IL-6 lung levels, tissue elasticity, BAL total protein levels and lung injury score. Tiotropium attenuated BAL neutrophil number, IL-1β, IL-6 levels and lung injury score increase at both 40% and 50% IRB. The increase in macrophage count and protein in BAL was only reversed at 40% IRB, while tissue elasticity was not affected. In all, 60% ERB raised BAL neutrophil count and total protein and reduced macrophage count. IL-1β and IL-6 levels and lung injury score were increased. Tiotropium attenuated these alterations, except for the decrease in macrophage count and the increase in total protein level. In all, 40%/60% CRB increased macrophage and neutrophil count in BAL, IL-1β and IL-6 levels, tissue elasticity, total protein in BAL and histological injury score. Tiotropium attenuated the aforementioned alterations.
Conclusion: Tiotropium inhalation attenuates RB-induced pulmonary inflammation.
Keywords: resistive breathing, inflammation, tiotropium bromide
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