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Three dimensional anatomy of the anterior cruciate ligament: a new approach in anatomical orthopedic studies and a literature review

Authors Gustavo Arliani G, Costa Astur D, Ramalho Moraes E, Cohen C, Jalikjian, Golano, Cohen M

Received 21 August 2012

Accepted for publication 12 September 2012

Published 12 November 2012 Volume 2012:3 Pages 183—188

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OAJSM.S37203

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2


Gustavo Gonçalves Arliani,1 Diego Costa Astur,1 Eduardo Ramalho Moraes,1 Camila Cohen Kaleka,2 Wahi Jalikjian,3 Pau Golano,4,5 Moisés Cohen1

1Centro de Traumatologia do Esporte (CETE), Departamento de Ortopedia e Traumatologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo SP, Brazil (DOT-UNIFESP/EPM); 2Departamento de Ortopedia e Traumatologia Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de São Paulo SP, Brazil; 3Departamento de Ortopedia e Traumatologia da Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto SP, Brazil; 4Laboratory of Arthroscopic and Surgical Anatomy, Department of Pathology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Barcelona, Spain; 5Department of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Background: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is an important structure in the knee. The ACL does not heal following lesions, and surgical reconstruction is the standard treatment among athletes. Some steps of ACL reconstruction remain controversial. It is important to fully understand the anatomy of the ACL to accurately reproduce its anatomy during surgical reconstructions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of anaglyphic images that produce 3D images to better visualize the anatomy of the ACL, and to highlight the anatomical features of this ligament as reported in the literature.
Methods: We included ten knees in this study. After dissection of the knee structures, pictures were acquired using a camera with Nikon D40, AF-S Nikkor 18–55 mm (1:3.5–5.6 G2 ED), and Micro Nikkor 105 mm (1:2.8) lenses. The pair of images was processed using Callipyan 3D Anabuilder software, which transforms the two images into one anaglyphic image.
Results: During the dissection of the knees, nine pictures were acquired and transformed into anaglyphic images.
Conclusion: This study, demonstrated that the use of 3D images is a useful tool that can improve the knowledge of the anatomy of the knee, while also facilitating knee reconstruction surgery.

Keywords: anatomy education, photography methods, education, medical methods, eyeglasses, anaglyphic

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