Therapeutic Potential Assessment of Green Synthesized Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Derived from Fennel Seeds Extract
Received 22 July 2020
Accepted for publication 24 September 2020
Published 20 October 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 8045—8057
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas J. Webster
Mohamad S AlSalhi,1,2 Sandhanasamy Devanesan,1,2 Muhammad Atif,1,2 Wedad S AlQahtani,3 Marcello Nicoletti,4 Paola Del Serrone5
1Research Chair in Laser Diagnosis of Cancers, Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Physics and Astronomy Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Forensic Sciences, College of Criminal Justice, Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome 00185, Italy; 5Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Research Center for Zootechnic and Aquaculture, Monterotondo, Rome, 00015, Italy
Correspondence: Sandhanasamy Devanesan; Muhammad Atif
Research Chair in Laser Diagnosis of Cancers, Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Purpose: To study the cytotoxic evaluation, antimicrobial and confocal analysis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) obtained from a novel plant product fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seed extract (FSE).
Methods: ZnO NPs were analyzed using UV–Vis spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, TEM and EDX techniques. The MTT cell cytotoxicity assay measured the proliferation and survival of MCF-7 cells treated at different concentrations of FSE-derived ZnO NPs. The antimicrobial activity towards pathogenic bacteria and yeast strains was investigated.
Results: The UV–Vis spectra showed two peaks at 438 nm and 446 nm, confirming nanoparticle formation. The SEM morphology results showed porous ranging from 23– 51 nm. The antitumor activity value (IC50) was at 50 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL. Besides, morphological changes of MCF-7, cells treated at different concentrations of FSE of ZnO NPs were observed in cell cultures transfected with a transient pCMV6-XL4-GFP-expressing vector containing C-terminal domain GFP-tagged proteins, which resulted in an apoptotic effect. Antimicrobial IZ ranged up No Inhibition to 18.00 ± 0.4. The IZ revealed at the highest concentration was E. faecium VRE and yeast Cryptococcus sp. (18.00 ± 0.4. mm), followed by S. aureus (17.00 ± 0.2 mm) and P. aeruginosa and the yeast C. parapsilosis (16 ± 0.4 mm). The IZ was equal to that caused by the nystatin to Cryptococcus sp., which was significantly highest than ampicillin treatments of S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, C. albicans, and C. parapsilosis. The MIC value of the FSE-derived ZnO NPs tested against E.faecium and C.albicans was 6.00 μg/mL (E. faecium and C. albicans). It was 32.00 μg/mL (S. aureus, S. typhimurium and Cryptococcus sp.), 64.00 μg/mL (P. aeruginosa), and 128 μg/mL (C. parapsilosis).
Conclusion: As far as it is to our knowledge, this study established, for the first time, the biological activities of biosynthesized ZnO NPs from FSE and their synergistic therapeutic potential.
Keywords: fennel seed extract-derived zinc oxide nanoparticles, green nanotechnology, anti-tumor activity, antimicrobial activity and therapeutic agents