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Theranostic multimodular potential of zinc-doped ferrite-saturated metal-binding protein-loaded novel nanocapsules in cancers

Authors Kamalapuram S, Kanwar R, Roy K, Chaudhary R, Sehgal R, Kanwar J

Received 27 August 2015

Accepted for publication 9 December 2015

Published 1 April 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 1349—1366


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Govarthanan Muthusamy

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster

Sishir K Kamalapuram,1 Rupinder K Kanwar,1 Kislay Roy,1 Rajneesh Chaudhary,1 Rakesh Sehgal,2 Jagat R Kanwar1

1Nanomedicine Laboratory of Immunology and Molecular Biomedical Research, School of Medicine, Centre for Molecular and Medical Research, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia; 2Department of Medical Parasitology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Abstract: The present study successfully developed orally deliverable multimodular zinc (Zn) iron oxide (Fe3O4)-saturated bovine lactoferrin (bLf)-loaded polymeric nanocapsules (NCs), and evaluated their theranostic potential (antitumor efficacy, magnetophotothermal efficacy and imaging capability) in an in vivo human xenograft CpG-island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-1+/CIMP2/chromosome instability-positive colonic adenocarcinoma (Caco2) and claudin-low, triple-negative (ER/PR/HER2; MDA-MB-231) breast cancer model. Mice fed orally on the Zn-Fe-bLf NC diet showed downregulation in tumor volume and complete regression in tumor volume after 45 days of feeding. In human xenograft colon cancer, vehicle-control NC diet-group (n=5) mice showed a tumor volume of 52.28±11.55 mm3, and Zn-Fe-bLf NC diet (n=5)-treated mice had a tumor-volume of 0.10±0.073 mm3. In the human xenograft breast cancer model, Zn-Fe-bLf NC diet (n=5)-treated mice showed a tumor volume of 0.051±0.062 mm3 within 40 days of feeding. Live mouse imaging conducted by near-infrared fluorescence imaging of Zn-Fe-bLf NCs showed tumor site-specific localization and regression of colon and breast tumor volume. Ex vivo fluorescence-imaging analysis of the vital organs of mice exhibited sparse localization patterns of Zn-Fe-bLf NCs and also confirmed tumor-specific selective localization patterns of Zn-Fe-bLf NCs. Dual imaging using magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography scans revealed an unprecedented theranostic ability of the Zn-Fe-bLf NCs. These observations warrant consideration of multimodular Zn-Fe-bLf NCs for real-time cancer imaging and simultaneous cancer-targeted therapy.

Keywords: theranostic, multimodular cancer therapy, nanocapsules, nanomedicine, real-time imaging

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