Back to Journals » Research and Reports in Urology » Volume 8

The use of urologic investigations among patients with traumatic spinal cord injuries

Authors Welk B, Liu K, Shariff S

Received 4 November 2015

Accepted for publication 18 December 2015

Published 22 February 2016 Volume 2016:8 Pages 27—34


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Jan Colli

Blayne Welk,1,2 Kuan Liu,2 Salimah Z Shariff,2
1Department of Surgery and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Western University, ON, Canada; 2Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences – Western (ICES Western), London, ON, Canada

Objective: To assess the use of urologic investigations among traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) patients.
Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study from Ontario, Canada. We included all adult TSCI patients injured between 2002 and 2012. The primary outcome was the frequency of urodynamic testing, renal imaging, and cystoscopy. Primary exposure was the year of injury. The impact of age, sex, comorbidity, socioeconomic status, and lesion level was assessed with Cox regression models.
Results: One thousand five hundred and fifty one incident TSCI patients were discharged from a rehabilitation hospital. The median follow-up time of this cohort was 5.0 years (interquartile range =2.9–7.5). At least one urodynamics, renal imaging, or cystoscopy was performed during follow-up for 50%, 80%, and 48% of the cohort, respectively. The overall rate of these tests was 0.22, 0.60, and 0.22 per person-year of follow-up. The proportion of patients who had regular, yearly urodynamics (<2%), renal imaging (6%), or cystoscopy (<2%) was low. There were no significant linear trends in the use of these tests over the 10-year study period. Urodynamics were significantly less likely to be performed in patients over 65 years of age (hazard ratio [HR] =0.63, P<0.01) and those with a higher level of comorbidity (HR =0.72, P<0.01). Patients with quadriplegia were significantly less likely to receive any of the investigations compared to those with paraplegia.
Conclusion: Renal imaging is done at least once for the majority of patients with TSCI; however, only half undergo urodynamics or cystoscopy. Few patients have regular urologic testing. The reality of urologic testing after TSCI is very different from urologist's ideals and practice guidelines.

Keywords: spinal cord injuries, urology, observational study, urodynamics, cystoscopy, renal imaging

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]