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The use of unirradiated and γ-irradiated zinc oxide nanoparticles as a preservative in cosmetic preparations

Authors Hosny AE, Kashef MT, Taher HA, El-Bazza ZE

Received 12 June 2017

Accepted for publication 19 July 2017

Published 12 September 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 6799—6811

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S143754

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Israel (Rudi) Rubinstein


Alaa El-Dien MS Hosny,1 Mona T Kashef,1 Hadeer A Taher,2 Zeinab E El-Bazza2

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Drug Radiation Research, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt

Purpose:
Microbial contamination of different cosmetic preparations, as a result of preservative failure, presents a major public health threat. Also, most of the known preservatives have serious consumer side effects. The antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP) is well documented. Therefore, we aimed to determine the possible use of unirradiated and γ-irradiated ZnO NP as a cosmetic preservative.
Methods: The possible use of ZnO NP as a preservative was tested and compared to commonly used preservatives using a challenge test. Their activity was tested in six different types of preparations. The effect of γ radiation on the antimicrobial activity of ZnO NP was tested through determination of the obtained zone diameters against different microorganisms and the total aerobic microbial count in tested preparations. The antimicrobial activity, of unirradiated and γ-irradiated ZnO NP during storage was also determined.
Results: ZnO NP were superior to other commonly used preservatives in all tested cosmetic preparations. They pass the challenge test in all types of tested preparations. γ irradiation enhanced their antimicrobial activity in all tested preparations. The irradiation causes a reduction in NP sizes that is directly proportional to the applied radiation dose. Upon storage, ZnO NP were effective in maintaining the microbial count of the product within the acceptable range. Their activity in stored products was enhanced by γ irradiation.
Conclusion: Unirradiated and γ-irradiated ZnO NP can be used as effective preservatives. They are compatible with the components of all tested products. γ irradiation enhanced the antimicrobial activity of ZnO NP.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, challenge test, γ irradiation, particle size, preservative, zinc oxide nanoparticles

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