Back to Journals » Clinical Ophthalmology » Volume 11

The use of Wavelight® Contoura to create a uniform cornea: the LYRA Protocol. Part 1: the effect of higher-order corneal aberrations on refractive astigmatism

Authors Motwani M

Received 3 February 2017

Accepted for publication 18 April 2017

Published 16 May 2017 Volume 2017:11 Pages 897—905


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser

Manoj Motwani

Motwani LASIK Institute, San Diego, CA, USA

Purpose: To demonstrate how higher-order corneal aberrations can cancel out, modify, or induce lower-order corneal astigmatism.
Patients and methods: Six representative eyes are presented that show different scenarios in which higher-order aberrations interacting with corneal astigmatism can affect the manifest refraction. WaveLight® Contoura ablation maps showing the higher-order aberrations are shown, as are results of correction with full measured correction using the LYRA (Layer Yolked Reduction of Astigmatism) Protocol.
Results: Higher-order corneal aberrations such as trefoil, quadrafoil, and coma can create ovalization of the central cornea, which can interact with the ovalization caused by lower-order astigmatism to either induce, cancel out, or modify the manifest refraction. Contoura processing successfully determines the linkage of these interactions resulting in full astigmatism removal. Purely lenticular astigmatism appears to be rare, but a case is also demonstrated. The author theorizes that all aberrations require cerebral compensatory processing and can be removed, supported by the facts that full removal of aberrations and its linkage with lower-order astigmatism with the LYRA Protocol has not resulted in worse or unacceptable vision for any patients.
Higher-order aberrations interacting with lower-order astigmatism is the main reason for the differences between manifest refraction and Contoura measured astigmatism, and the linkage between these interactions can be successfully treated using Contoura and the LYRA Protocol. Lenticular astigmatism is relatively rare.

topographic guided ablation, LASIK, PRK, WaveLight Contoura, uniform cornea, higher order aberrations

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]