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The synergistic radiosensitizing effect of tirapazamine-conjugated gold nanoparticles on human hepatoma HepG2 cells under X-ray irradiation

Authors Liu X, Liu Y, Zhang P, Jin X, Zheng X, Ye F, Chen W, Li Q

Received 29 January 2016

Accepted for publication 16 May 2016

Published 28 July 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 3517—3531


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Lei Yang

Xi Liu,1–4 Yan Liu,1–4 Pengcheng Zhang,1–4 Xiaodong Jin,1–3 Xiaogang Zheng,1–4 Fei Ye,1–4 Weiqiang Chen,1–3 Qiang Li1–3

1Institute of Modern Physics, 2Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3Key Laboratory of Basic Research on Heavy Ion Radiation Application in Medicine, Gansu Province, Lanzhou, 4School of Life Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China

Abstract: Reductive drug-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been proposed to enhance the damage of X-rays to cells through improving hydroxyl radical production by secondary electrons. In this work, polyethylene glycol-capped AuNPs were conjugated with tirapazamine (TPZ) moiety, and then thioctyl TPZ (TPZs)-modified AuNPs (TPZs-AuNPs) were synthesized. The TPZs-AuNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectra, dynamic light scattering, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to have a size of 16.6±2.1 nm in diameter and a TPZs/AuNPs ratio of ~700:1. In contrast with PEGylated AuNPs, the as-synthesized TPZs-AuNPs exhibited 20% increment in hydroxyl radical production in water at 2.0 Gy, and 19% increase in sensitizer enhancement ratio at 10% survival fraction for human hepatoma HepG2 cells under X-ray irradiation. The production of reactive oxygen species in HepG2 cells exposed to X-rays in vitro demonstrated a synergistic radiosensitizing effect of AuNPs and TPZ moiety. Thus, the reductive drug-conjugated TPZs-AuNPs as a kind of AuNP radiosensitizer with low gold loading provide a new strategy for enhancing the efficacy of radiation therapy.

Keywords: AuNPs, radiation enhancement, synergistic effect, human hepatoma cells, hydroxyl radical production

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