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The spherical nanoparticle-encapsulated chlorhexidine enhances anti-biofilm efficiency through an effective releasing mode and close microbial interactions

Authors Li X, Wong C, Ng T, Zhang C, Leung KC, Jin L

Received 3 February 2016

Accepted for publication 19 March 2016

Published 31 May 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 2471—2480


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Govarthanan Muthusamy

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster

Xuan Li,1 Chi-Hin Wong,2 Tsz-Wing Ng,2 Cheng-Fei Zhang,1 Ken Cham-Fai Leung,2 Lijian Jin1

1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, 2Department of Chemistry, Institute of Creativity and Partner State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Abstract: We reported two forms (sphere and wire) of newly fabricated chlorhexidine (CHX)-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), and investigated their releasing capacities and anti-biofilm efficiencies. The interactions of the blank MSNs with planktonic oral microorganisms were assessed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The anti-biofilm effects of the two forms of nanoparticle-encapsulated CHX were examined by 2,3-bis (2-methoxy- 4-nitro-5-sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide. The profiles of biofilm penetration were analyzed by fluorescent-labeled MSNs using confocal microscopy and ImageJ. The spherical MSNs with an average diameter of 265 nm exhibited a larger surface area and faster CHX-releasing rate than the MSN wires. The field emission scanning electron microscopy images showed that both shaped MSNs enabled to attach and further fuse with the surfaces of testing microbes. Meanwhile, the nanoparticle-encapsulated CHX could enhance the anti-biofilm efficiency with reference to its free form. Notably, the spherical nanoparticle-encapsulated CHX presented with a greater anti-biofilm capacity than the wire nanoparticle-encapsulated CHX, partly due to their difference in physical property. Furthermore, the relatively even distribution and homogeneous dispersion of spherical MSNs observed in confocal images may account for the enhanced penetration of spherical nanoparticle-encapsulated CHX into the microbial biofilms and resultant anti-biofilm effects. These findings reveal that the spherical nanoparticle-encapsulated CHX could preferably enhance its anti-biofilm efficiency through an effective releasing mode and close interactions with microbes.

Keywords: mesoporous silica nanoparticles, morphology, chlorhexidine, imaging, biofilms

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