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The roles of serum CXCL16 in circulating Tregs and gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells

Authors Xing Y, Zhang J, Xu H

Received 28 January 2016

Accepted for publication 26 April 2016

Published 29 June 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 3939—3949


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Min Li

Ya-Nan Xing, Jun-Yan Zhang, Hui-Mian Xu

Department of Surgical Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Liaoning, People’s Republic of China

Abstract: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common sarcomas of the digestive system. Abnormal expression of CXCL16 and its sole receptor, CXCR6, has been demonstrated in many cancers. However, no studies have shown the relationship between CXCL16 or CXCR6 expression and GIST. In this study, we detected CXCL16 and CXCR6 expression in GIST patient samples by using immunohistochemistry analysis and Western blot analysis. Serum CXCL16 level was determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Circulating Tregs were isolated by using flow cytometry. MTT assay, cell cycle assay, and transwell assay were used to test the effects of recombinant CXCL16 on Tregs and GIST cells in vitro. The levels of CXCL16 and CXCR6 protein were higher in cancer tissues than in normal tissues. Serum CXCL16 level and circulating Tregs were higher in GIST patients than that in the healthy volunteers. CXCL16, CXCR6, serum CXCL16, and circulating Tregs were significantly associated with a decreased survival time of patients. Relative to control cells, high concentration recombinant CXCL16 treated Tregs and GIST cells exhibited lower proliferation and mobility rates as assessed by MTT assay and transwell assay, respectively. Taken together, CXCL16 was observed to mediate the inhibitory effects in Tregs and GIST cells, and these involved suppression of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway.

Keywords: CXCL16, CXCR6, Treg, GIST, MEK/ERK signaling pathway

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