Back to Journals » International Journal of Nanomedicine » Volume 7

The role of calcifying nanoparticles in biology and medicine

Authors Kutikhin A, Brusina, Yuzhalin A

Received 9 November 2011

Accepted for publication 30 November 2011

Published 19 January 2012 Volume 2012:7 Pages 339—350


Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Anton G Kutikhin, Elena B Brusina, Arseniy E Yuzhalin
Department of Epidemiology, Kemerovo State Medical Academy, Kemerovo, Russian Federation

Abstract: Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs) (nanobacteria, nanobacteria-like particles, nanobes) were discovered over 25 years ago; nevertheless, their nature is still obscure. To date, nobody has been successful in credibly determining whether they are the smallest self-replicating life form on Earth, or whether they represent mineralo-protein complexes without any relation to living organisms. Proponents of both theories have a number of arguments in favor of the validity of their hypotheses. However, after epistemological analysis carried out in this review, all arguments used by proponents of the theory about the physicochemical model of CNP formation may be refuted on the basis of the performed investigations, and therefore published data suggest a biological nature of CNPs. The only obstacle to establish CNPs as living organisms is the absence of a fairly accurately sequenced genome at the present time. Moreover, it is clear that CNPs play an important role in etiopathogenesis of many diseases, and this association is independent from their nature. Consequently, emergence of CNPs in an organism is a pathological, not a physiological, process. The classification and new directions of further investigations devoted to the role of CNPs in biology and medicine are proposed.

Keywords: nanobacteria, nanobacteria-like particles, diseases, infectious agents, hydroxyapatite

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]


Other articles by this author:

C-type lectin receptors and RIG-I-like receptors: new points on the oncogenomics map

Kutikhin AG, Yuzhalin AE

Cancer Management and Research 2012, 4:39-53

Published Date: 24 February 2012

Inherited variation in pattern recognition receptors and cancer: dangerous liaisons?

Kutikhin AG, Yuzhalin AE

Cancer Management and Research 2012, 4:31-38

Published Date: 16 February 2012

Readers of this article also read:

Emerging and future therapies for hemophilia

Carr ME, Tortella BJ

Journal of Blood Medicine 2015, 6:245-255

Published Date: 3 September 2015

Advances in cancer pain from bone metastasis

Zhu XC, Zhang JL, Ge CT, Yu YY, Wang P, Yuan TF, Fu CY

Drug Design, Development and Therapy 2015, 9:4239-4245

Published Date: 18 August 2015

Methacrylic-based nanogels for the pH-sensitive delivery of 5-Fluorouracil in the colon

Ashwanikumar N, Kumar NA, Nair SA, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5769-5779

Published Date: 15 November 2012

A novel preparation method for silicone oil nanoemulsions and its application for coating hair with silicone

Hu Z, Liao M, Chen Y, Cai Y, Meng L, Liu Y, Lv N, Liu Z, Yuan W

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5719-5724

Published Date: 12 November 2012

Cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs in cancer therapy

Deepa G, Thulasidasan AK, Anto RJ, Pillai JJ, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:4077-4088

Published Date: 27 July 2012