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The potential use of biomarkers in predicting contrast-induced acute kidney injury

Authors Andreucci M, Faga T, Riccio E, Sabbatini M, Pisani A, Michael A

Received 27 January 2016

Accepted for publication 9 March 2016

Published 9 September 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 205—221


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Pravin Singhal

Michele Andreucci,1 Teresa Faga,1 Eleonora Riccio,2 Massimo Sabbatini,2 Antonio Pisani,2 Ashour Michael,1

1Department of Health Sciences, University “Magna Graecia” of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, 2Department of Public Health, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy

Abstract: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is a problem associated with the use of iodinated contrast media, causing kidney dysfunction in patients with preexisting renal failure. It accounts for 12% of all hospital-acquired kidney failure and increases the length of hospitalization, a situation that is worsening with increasing numbers of patients with comorbidities, including those requiring cardiovascular interventional procedures. So far, its diagnosis has relied upon the rise in creatinine levels, which is a late marker of kidney damage and is believed to be inadequate. Therefore, there is an urgent need for biomarkers that can detect CI-AKI sooner and more reliably. In recent years, many new biomarkers have been characterized for AKI, and these are discussed particularly with their use in known CI-AKI models and studies and include neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, cystatin C (Cys-C), kidney injury molecule-1, interleukin-18, N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, and L-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP). The potential of miRNA and metabolomic technology is also mentioned. Early detection of CI-AKI may lead to early intervention and therefore improve patient outcome, and in future any one or a combination of several of these markers together with development in technology for their analysis may prove effective in this respect.

Keywords: radiocontrast media, acute renal failure, markers, renal injury

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