Back to Journals » Journal of Inflammation Research » Volume 9

The macrophages in rheumatic diseases

Authors Laria A, Lurati AM, marrazza M, mazzocchi D, re K, scarpellini M

Received 6 February 2015

Accepted for publication 12 May 2015

Published 9 February 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 1—11

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S82320

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Ning Quan


Antonella Laria, Alfredomaria Lurati , Mariagrazia Marrazza , Daniela Mazzocchi, Katia Angela Re, Magda Scarpellini

Rheumatology Unit, Fornaroli Hospital, Magenta, Italy


Abstract: Macrophages belong to the innate immune system giving us protection against pathogens. However it is known that they are also involved in rheumatic diseases. Activated macrophages have two different phenotypes related to different stimuli: M1 (classically activated) and M2 (alternatively activated). M1 macrophages release high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive nitrogen and oxygen intermediates killing microorganisms and tumor cells; while M2 macrophages are involved in resolution of inflammation through phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils, reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased synthesis of mediators important in tissue remodeling, angiogenesis, and wound repair. The role of macrophages in the different rheumatic diseases is different according to their M1/M2 macrophages phenotype.

Keywords: macrophage, rheumatic diseases

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]