The level of emotion control, anxiety, and self-efficacy in the elderly in Bialystok, Poland
Authors Cybulski M, Cybulski L, Krajewska-Kulak E, Cwalina U
Received 25 November 2016
Accepted for publication 6 January 2017
Published 8 February 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 305—314
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker
Mateusz Cybulski,1 Lukasz Cybulski,2 Elzbieta Krajewska-Kulak,1 Urszula Cwalina3
1Department of Integrated Medical Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, 2Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, 3Department of Statistics and Medical Informatics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland
Purpose: The aim of the study was to assess the level of emotion control, anxiety, and self-efficacy in the inhabitants of Bialystok (Poland) aged above 60.
Patients and methods: The study included 300 people above the age of 60, inhabitants of Bialystok and its neighborhoods: 100 residents of public nursing home, 100 participants of the University of the Third Age in Bialystok, and 100 students of the University of Healthy Senior. The three standardized psychometric scales were used in the study: Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (CECS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES).
Results: The median of the overall score of CECS equaled 54 points, which is considered average in terms of negative emotions acceptance. The mean score of perceiving anxiety as the condition of STAI (X1) was 48 points, while anxiety as a trait of STAI (X2) was 49 points. The overall score for GSES proved that respondents had a subjective feeling of self-efficacy at the level of 29 points out of 40 points possible, which means that their self-efficacy was rather at the high level in their self-assessment. In women, a negative correlation was revealed between the sense of self-efficacy and age (r=–0.320, P<0.001). Analyzing the study group affiliation of respondents, a negative correlation was reported between the sense of self-efficacy and age among the elderly residents of public nursing home (r=–0.408, P<0.001). Taking into consideration the study group affiliation of respondents, a positive correlation between anger control (CECS) and the sense of anxiety as a trait of STAI (X2) was found among participants of the University of Healthy Senior (r=0.307, P=0.002).
Conclusion: The social and demographic features (gender, group affiliation, age) analyzed in the study were found to be correlated significantly with the control of negative emotions, the level of anxiety, and self-efficacy. The study group affiliation was a key variable conditioning the relations between the analyzed features. The elderly residents of public nursing home belonged to the group distinguishing negatively compared to other two study groups. The study respondents were characterized by the relatively high perception of anxiety, which may be as a result of the health and social problem present in this age group. In order to improve the quality of life, the study population should reduce level of perceived anxiety and increase the control of negative emotions and self-efficacy by social integration of seniors. The study scores in the scale of CECS, STAI, and GSES do not deviate from the world norms obtained by other researchers in the rest of the world.
Keywords: emotion control, level of anxiety, the elderly, old age, self-efficacy
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