The journey from gene knockout to clinical medicine: telotristat and sotagliflozin
Marc S Rendell1,2
1Association of Diabetes Investigators, Omaha, NE 68131, USA; 2Rose Salter Medical Research Foundation, Newport Coast, CA 92657, USA
Abstract: Gene knockout has been a powerful technique to evaluate the physiologic role of selected gene products. Lexicon pioneered high-throughput gene knockout technology and went further in designing agents to inhibit products of gene expression. Two agents have entered late-stage development. Telotristat is an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), preventing the production of serotonin. Although this agent blocks the two isoforms of TPH, it does not cross the blood–brain barrier, thus avoiding central neurologic manifestations. It inhibits the peripheral production of serotonin, and in particular prevents serotonin action in the intestines, resulting in decreased peristaltic action. Lexicon successfully developed telotristat to treat carcinoid syndrome not responding adequately to somatostatin inhibitors. Sotagliflozin development proceeded from the observation that dual inhibition of SGLT2 in the kidneys and SGLT1 in the intestines resulted in increased renal glucose excretion, reduced early-phase glucose absorption, as well as increased blood levels of GLP-1 and PYY. Initial development efforts focused on type 1 diabetes and have shown reduced postprandial glucose levels, less tendency to hypoglycemia, and lower HbA1c. Several other SGLT2 inhibitors have been associated with increased frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). In the type 1 trials, sotagliflozin-treated individuals experienced DKA at a higher rate than placebo-treated patients. The sotagliflozin development program has now been extended to trials on type 2 diabetes. Long-term clinical trials will determine the benefits and risks of the agent in comparison to other currently marketed SGLT2 inhibitors.
Keywords: gene knockout models, telotristat, SGLT1, SGLT2, diabetic ketoacidosis, sotagliflozin
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