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The Influence of Size and Chemical Composition of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles on in vivo Toxicity with Potential Applications to Central Nervous System Diseases

Authors Báez DF, Gallardo-Toledo E, Oyarzún MP, Araya E, Kogan MJ

Received 19 November 2020

Accepted for publication 20 January 2021

Published 15 March 2021 Volume 2021:16 Pages 2187—2201

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S260375

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas J. Webster


Daniela F Báez,1– 3,* Eduardo Gallardo-Toledo,1,2,* María Paz Oyarzún,1,2 Eyleen Araya,2,4 Marcelo J Kogan1,2

1Department of Pharmacological and Toxicological Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; 2Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDIS), Santiago, Chile; 3Redox Process Research Center, CIPRex, Faculty of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; 4Departamento de Ciencias Quimicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago, Chile

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Correspondence: Eyleen Araya
Departamento de Ciencias Quimicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago, 8370035, Chile
Email [email protected]
Marcelo J Kogan
Departamento de Química Farmacológica y Toxicológica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8380494, Chile
Email [email protected]

Abstract: The physicochemical and optical properties of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have allowed them to be employed for various biomedical applications, including delivery, therapy, imaging, and as theranostic agents. However, since they are foreign body systems, they are usually redistributed and accumulated in some vital organs, which can produce toxic effects; therefore, this a crucial issue that should be considered for potential clinical trials. This review aimed to summarize the reports from the past ten years that have used SNPs and GNPs for in vivo studies on the diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases and those related to the central nervous system, emphasizing their toxicity as a crucial topic address. The article focuses on the effect of the nanoparticle´s size and chemical composition as relevant parameters for in vivo toxicity. At the beginning of this review, the general toxicity and distribution studies are discussed separately for SNPs and GNPs. Subsequently, this manuscript analyzes the principal applications of both kinds of nanoparticles for glioma, neurodegenerative, and other brain diseases, and discusses the advances in clinical trials. Finally, we analyze research prospects towards clinical applications for both types of metallic nanoparticles.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, brain diseases, central nervous system, toxicity, in vivo applications

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