The influence of nano MgO and BaSO4 particle size additives on properties of PMMA bone cement
Alyssa Ricker, Peishan Liu-Snyder, Thomas J Webster
Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA
Abstract: A common technique to aid in implant fixation into surrounding bone is to inject bone cement into the space between the implant and surrounding bone. The most common bone cement material used clinically today is poly(methyl methacrylate), or PMMA. Although promising, there are numerous disadvantages of using PMMA in bone fixation applications which has limited its wide spread use. Specifically, the PMMA polymerization reaction is highly exothermic in situ, thus, damaging surrounding bone tissue while curing. In addition, PMMA by itself is not visible using typical medical imaging techniques (such as X-rays required to assess new bone formation surrounding the implant). Lastly, although PMMA does support new bone growth, studies have highlighted decreased osteoblast (bone forming cell) functions on PMMA compared to other common orthopedic coating materials, such as calcium phosphates and hydroxyapatite. For these reasons, the goal of this study was to begin to investigate novel additives to PMMA which can enhance its cytocompatibility properties with osteoblasts, decrease its exothermic reaction when curing, and increase its radiopacity. Results of this study demonstrated that compared to conventional (or micron) equivalents, PMMA with nanoparticles of MgO and BaSO4 reduced harmful exothermic reactions of PMMA during solidification and increased radiopacity, respectively. Moreover, osteoblast adhesion increased on PMMA with nanoparticles of MgO and BaSO4 compared with PMMA alone. This study, thus, suggests that nanoparticles of MgO and BaSO4 should be further studied for improving properties of PMMA for orthopedic applications.
Keywords: bone cement, PMMA, Poly(methyl methacrylate), osteoblast, nanoparticles
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