The influence of carbon dioxide field flooding in mitral valve operations with cardiopulmonary bypass on S100ß level in blood plasma in the aging brain
Received 21 June 2018
Accepted for publication 27 July 2018
Published 25 September 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 1837—1845
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker
Mariusz Listewnik,1 Katarzyna Kotfis,2 Paweł Ślozowski,1 Krzysztof Mokrzycki,1 Mirosław Brykczyński1
1Department of Cardiac Surgery, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Therapy and Acute Intoxications, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
Introduction: The risk of air microembolism during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is high and influences the postoperative outcome, especially in elderly patients. The use of carbon dioxide (CO2) atmosphere during cardiac surgery may reduce the risk of cerebral air microembolism. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of CO2 field flooding on microembolism-induced brain damage assessed by the level of S100ß protein, regarded as a marker of brain damage.
Materials and methods: A group of 100 patients undergoing planned mitral valve operation through median sternotomy using standard CPB was recruited for the study. Echocardiography was performed prior to and after the CPB. CO2 insufflation at 6 L/minute was conducted in the study group. Blood samples for S100ß protein analysis were collected after induction of anesthesia, 2 hours after aorta de-clamping, and 24 hours after operation.
Results: The S100ß level in blood plasma did not differ significantly between the study and the control group (0.13±0.08 µg/L, 1.12±0.59 µg/L, and 0.26±0.23 µg/L and 0.18±0.19 µg/L, 1.31±0.62 µg/L, and 0.23±0.12 µg/L, P=0.7, 0.14, and 0.78). The mean increase of the S100ß concentration was 13% lower in the group with CO2 protection than in the control group (0.988 µg/L vs 1.125 µg/L), although statistically insignificant. Tricuspid valve annuloplasties (TVAs) had significant impact on the increase in S100ß concentration in the treatment group after 24 hours (TVA [-] 0.21±0.09 vs TVA [+] 0.42±0.42, P=0.05). In patients >60 years, there were significant differences in the S100ß level 2 and 24 hours after the procedure (1.59±0.682 µg/L vs 1.223±0.571 µg/L, P=0.048, and 0.363±0.318 µg/L vs 0.229±0.105 µg/L, P=0.036) as compared with younger patients.
Conclusion: The increase in S100ß concentration was lower in the group with CO2 protection than in the control group. Age and an addition of TVA significantly influenced the level of S100ß concentration in the tests performed 2 hours after aortic clamp release.
Keywords: mitral valve surgery, S100ß, air microembolism, cardiopulmonary bypass, carbon dioxide insufflation
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