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The impact of oxidized serum albumin on the oncotic pressure and hydration status of peritoneal dialysis patients

Authors Hassan K, Kristal B, Hassan F, Abo Saleh S, Michelis R

Received 11 December 2015

Accepted for publication 17 February 2016

Published 24 March 2016 Volume 2016:12 Pages 463—469

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S102311

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Lucy Goodman

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Garry Walsh

Kamal Hassan,1,2 Batya Kristal,1,2 Fadi Hassan,3 Saad Abo Saleh,4 Regina Michelis5

1Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee, Bar-Ilan University, Safed, Israel; 2Peritoneal Dialysis Unit, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Galilee Medical Center, Nahariya, Israel; 3Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; 4Department of Urology, Galilee Medical Center, Nahariya, Israel; 5Eliachar Research Laboratory, Galilee Medical Center, Nahariya, Israel

Objective: Hypoalbuminemia, fluid overload (FO), and oxidative stress (OS) may be related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. OS produces molecular modifications of serum albumin that interfere with its quantification by the commonly used bromocresol green assay. This study evaluated the impact of oxidized serum albumin (OSA) on oncotic pressure (OP) and hydration status.
Patients and methods: Twenty-four stable hypoalbuminemic PD patients were enrolled in the study. After performing physical examination, assessment of the hydration status using a whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy technique was performed, and blood samples were drawn for determination of OP, serum albumin levels, and OSA.
Results: Extracellular to total body water (E/TBW) ratio was higher in patients with FO ≥1.5 L with or without edema than in patients with FO <1.5 L (P≤0.043). E/TBW ratio was higher in patients with FO ≥1.5 L and edema compared to those with FO ≥1.5 L but without edema (P=0.004). OP was significantly higher in patients with FO ≥1.5 L and without edema compared to those with FO ≥1.5 L and with edema (P<0.001). Albumin-detection index (ADI) in patients with FO ≥1.5 L and without edema was similar to ADI in patients with FO <1.5 L (P=0.520). ADI was significantly lower in patients with FO ≥1.5 L and without edema compared to those with FO ≥1.5 L and edema (P=0.034). E/TBW ratio correlated positively with the ADI (r=0.60, P=0.001) and inversely with the OP (r=-0.54, P=0.002).
Conclusion: Overhydration may be clinically undetectable in PD patients. Assessing the hydration status and measuring the total serum albumin levels, including the oxidized fraction, should be considered in evaluating hydration status in PD patients.

Keywords: peritoneal dialysis, oncotic pressure, oxidized serum albumin, hydration status

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