Back to Journals » International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease » Volume 13

The impact of 2011 and 2017 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (GOLD) guidelines on allocation and pharmacological management of patients with COPD in Taiwan: Taiwan Obstructive Lung Disease (TOLD) study

Authors Hsieh MJ, Huang SY, Yang TM, Tao CW, Cheng SL, Lee CH, Kuo PH, Wu YK, Chen NH, Hsu WH, Hsu JY, Lin MS, Wang CC, Wei YF, Tsai YH

Received 1 June 2018

Accepted for publication 15 August 2018

Published 25 September 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 2949—2959


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Chunxue Bai

Meng-Jer Hsieh,1,2 Shu-Yi Huang,1 Tsung-Ming Yang,1 Chi-Wei Tao,3 Shih-Lung Cheng,4 Chao-Hsien Lee,5 Ping-Hung Kuo,6 Yao-Kuang Wu,7,8 Ning-Hung Chen,9 Wu-Huei Hsu,10 Jeng-Yuan Hsu,11 Ming-Shian Lin,12 Chin-Chou Wang,13 Yu-Feng Wei,14 Ying-Huang Tsai1,2

1Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical foundation, Chiayi, Taiwan; 2Department of Respiratory Therapy, School of Medicine, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei; 5Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 6Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 7Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 8School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan; 9Department of pulmonary and critical care medicine, LinKou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 10Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 11Division of Chest Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan; 12Dpartment of Internal Medicine, Ditmanson Medical Foundation, Chia-Yi Cristian Hospital, Chia-Yi, Taiwan; 13Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical Foundation, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 14Department of Internal Medicine E-Da Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Background: This nationwide study was performed to evaluate the evolution of distributions of patients with COPD according to the 2011 and 2017 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (GOLD) guidelines and to assess the concordance between the prescribed medications and the pharmacological management recommended by the two distinct classification systems in Taiwan.
Subjects and methods: Data were retrospectively retrieved from stable COPD patients in 11 participating hospitals across Taiwan. Patients were grouped according to GOLD 2011 and 2017 guidelines respectively. Definitions of undertreatment and overtreatment were based on the pharmacological recommendations in the individual guidelines.
Results: A total of 1,053 COPD patients were included. The percentages of patients in GOLD 2011 groups A, B, C and D were 18.4%, 40.6%, 6.7% and 34.2%, respectively. When reclassified according to the GOLD 2017, the percentages of group A and B increased to 23.3% and 63.2%, and groups C and D decreased to 1.9% and 11.6%, respectively. Up to 67% of patients in GOLD 2011 groups C and D were reclassified to GOLD 2017 groups A and B. The pharmacological concordance rate was 60.9% for GOLD 2011 and decreased to 44.9% for GOLD 2017. Overtreatment was found in 29.5% of patients according to GOLD 2011 and the rate increased to 46.1% when classified by the GOLD 2017. The major cause of overtreatment was unnecessary inhaled corticosteroids and the main cause of undertreatment was a lack of maintenance long-acting bronchodilators.
Conclusion: The distribution of COPD patients in Taiwan was more uneven with the GOLD 2017 than with the GOLD 2011. A pharmacological discordance to the guidelines was identified. Updated guidelines with reclassification of COPD patients resulted in more discordance between prescribed medications and the guidelines. Physicians should make proper adjustments of the prescriptions according to the updated guidelines to ensure the mostly appropriate treatment for COPD patients.

Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, GOLD guidelines, inhaled corticosteroids, long-acting bronchodilators

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]