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The first night effect in multiple sclerosis patients undergoing home-based polysomnography

Authors Veauthier C, Piper SK, Gaede G, Penzel T, Paul F

Received 8 June 2018

Accepted for publication 16 July 2018

Published 23 October 2018 Volume 2018:10 Pages 337—344

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S176201

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Steven A Shea


Christian Veauthier,1 Sophie K Piper,2,3 Gunnar Gaede,4 Thomas Penzel,1,5 Friedemann Paul6,7

1Interdisciplinary Center of Sleep Medicine, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany; 2Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of Biometry and Clinical Epidemiology, Berlin, Germany; 3Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), Berlin, Germany; 4Department of Neurology, St. Joseph Krankenhaus Berlin-Weissensee, Berlin, Germany; 5International Clinical Research Center, St. Anne’s University Hospital Brno, Brno, Czech Republic; 6NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany; 7Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany

Background:
The first night effect (FNE) is a polysomnography (PSG) habituation effect in the first of several consecutive in-laboratory PSGs (I-PSGs). The FNE is caused by the discomfort provoked by electrodes and cables and the exposure to an unfamiliar environment. A reverse FNE (RFNE) with an improved sleep in the first night is characteristic of insomnia, presumably because the video PSG in the sleep laboratory leads to a decrease in the negatively toned cognitive activity. Therefore, two or more I-PSGs are required for an accurate diagnosis. Although the FNE is well documented in I-PSG, little is known about the FNE and the RFNE in home-based PSGs (H-PSGs).
Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a recently published cross-sectional study using H-PSG. Sixty-three consecutive patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) were investigated by two consecutive H-PSGs without video. The differences between the first and second H-PSGs were analyzed. The patients were classified into four subgroups: no sleep disorder, insomnia, sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs), and periodic limb movement disorder or restless legs syndrome (PLMD/RLS).
Results: MS patients suffering from insomnia showed no RFNE. MS patients with SRBD or PLMD/RLS showed no reduced sleep efficiency but significantly less slow wave sleep. Furthermore, SRBD patients showed significantly less non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and PLMD/RLS patients were significantly awake longer in the first night after sleep onset (increased wake-after-sleep-onset time) and showed a higher rapid eye movement (REM) latency.
Conclusion: SRBD and PLMD/RLS patients showed a significant FNE. Two consecutive H-PSGs are required in these patients to obtain a precise hypnogram even in the ambulatory field. In MS patients suffering from insomnia, no RFNE was found, and in insomnia patients one H-PSG seems to be sufficient.

Keywords: insomnia, multiple sclerosis, outpatient sleep studies, polysomnography, sleep latency, wake after sleep onset

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