Back to Journals » Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment » Volume 14

The effects of Maras powder use on patients with migraine

Authors İnanç Y, Orhan FÖ, İnanç Y

Received 7 February 2018

Accepted for publication 13 March 2018

Published 7 May 2018 Volume 2018:14 Pages 1143—1148


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Roger Pinder

Yılmaz İnanç,1 Fatma Özlem Orhan,2 Yusuf İnanç3

1Department of Neurology, Kahramanmaraş Sütçüimam University School of Medicine, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey; 2Department of Psychiatry, Kahramanmaraş Sütçüimam University School of Medicine, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey; 3Department of Neurology, Gaziantep University School of Medicine, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey

Background: It is accepted that smoking often triggers migraine. However, studies evaluating the relationship between the use of smokeless tobacco and migraine are limited, and there is no clear consensus on the subject. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the relationship between migraine and Maras powder, which is the most common smokeless tobacco in Turkey.
Subjects and methods: The study included a total of 600 subjects, consisting of 300 patients (aged >18 years) diagnosed with a migraine according to the International Headache Society (IHS-ICHD-3 Beta) criteria after presenting at Sütçü Imam University Medical Faculty Neurology Policlinic with the complaint of headache between July 2016 and December 2016 and a control group of 300 individuals with similar features of age, gender, and educational level. A questionnaire was administered to each patient to record the status of smoking or using Maras powder.
Results: In the migraine patient group, 16.4% smoked and 9.7% used Maras powder. In the control group, the rate of smoking was 8.5% and the rate of Maras powder use was 11.86%. In males diagnosed with a migraine, the use of Maras powder was found to be at a higher rate than smoking (p<0.001). The Visual Pain Score and the headache frequency values were higher in those who smoked or used Maras powder than in non-users (p<0.001). The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence Smokeless Tobacco results of the patients diagnosed with migraine and who used Maras powder were found to be higher than of those who smoked (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence; p<0.001). When patients were evaluated according to the Migraine Disability Assessment Scale, the majority of migraine patients were seen to be at stages 1 and 2, and one in every three patients who used Maras powder cigarette and one in every two patients who smoked had headaches of a severity which affected their daily activities (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Smoking or the use of Maras powder increases the frequency and severity of migraines in a similar way. Therefore, Maras powder must be included in the scope of the fight against tobacco and people should be warned about this issue.

cigarette, Maras powder, migraine, smokeless tobacco

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]