The effect of mentholated cigarette use on interleukin-6 responses across different HIV positive race/ethnic subgroups
María José Míguez-Burbano1,2, Rhonda Rosenberg2, Robert Malow2, Ximena Burbano4, Jessy Devieux2, Nair Madhavan3
1Institute of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, Florida International University College of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Robert Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work and College of Medicine, 3Department of Immunology, College of Medicine, Florida International University Miami, FL, USA; 4Zilonis Health Care Research, Miami, FL, USA
Abstract: In this report, we analyze trends in interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH), as a function of smoking behaviors and race, using a clinic-based case-control design. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from a multiethnic cohort of 120 PLWH to measure IL-6 in culture supernatant. The data indicated that stimulated PBMC produced significantly higher levels of IL-6 in smokers than nonsmokers. However, as expected, this relationship was substantially modified by race. The distinctive production of IL-6 across different racial groups highlights the need for additional studies and suggests that African American smokers have enhanced production of IL-6 than other groups. Additional analyses indicate that higher IL-6 levels are related to the predicted use of mentholated cigarettes, which are more frequently used by African Americans. These findings warrant further investigation and indicate the critical need for tailored preventive interventions.
Keywords: AIDS, interleukins, smoking, race/ethnicity, menthol cigarettes