The Effect of CYP2C9 Genotype Variants in Type 2 Diabetes on the Pharmacological Effectiveness of Sulfonylureas, Diabetic Retinopathy, and Nephropathy
Authors Saberi M, Ramazani Z, Rashidi H, Saberi A
Received 11 September 2019
Accepted for publication 5 June 2020
Published 18 June 2020 Volume 2020:16 Pages 241—248
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Pietro Scicchitano
Meisam Saberi,1 Zahra Ramazani,1 Homeira Rashidi,2 Alihossein Saberi3
1Department of Medical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Ahvaz Jundishpur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran; 2Diabetic Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishpur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran; 3Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
Correspondence: Alihossein Saberi
Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
Email [email protected]
Aim: Type 2 diabetes (T2D), as a major cause of morbidity and mortality, is predicted to have a prevalence of 629 million by 2045. As diabetic patients show considerable inter-individual variation in response to antidiabetic treatment, this study aimed to investigate the gene polymorphism of cytochrome P450 as well as the effectiveness and safety of glibenclamide and gliclazide for different genotypes of CYP2C9. Besides, the chronic side effects of T2D including retinal microvasculature complications or retinopathy and renal dysfunction due to nephropathy in different genotypes were considered.
Patients and Methods: The participants including 80 T2D patients treated with glibenclamide or gliclazide were recruited from university hospitals of Ahvaz Jundishpur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, in the southwest of Iran. Blood samples were collected from the patients at 2.5h after the morning dose of glibenclamide and 12h after the last dose of gliclazide. Genotyping from the extracted DNA was, then, performed using PCR-RFLP. The plasma level of glibenclamide and gliclazide was, in turn, measured by the reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography.
Results: The results showed that the wild-type allele, i.e., CYP2C9*1, occurred in the highest frequency (0.8), while the frequency rates of the mutant allele, i.e., CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3, were 0.15 and 0.05, respectively. Moreover, no significant association was found between any of the genotypes as well as the clinical and biochemical characteristics of the patients. The findings also showed that the plasma level of sulfonylureas (i.e., glibenclamide and gliclazide) was the highest in the patients with the CYP2C9*3 allele. It was also found that 75.9% of the patients with variant genotypes had experienced hypoglycemia events. Furthermore, in the absence of wild type allele, a significant increase was observed in retinopathy (p=0.039) and nephropathy (p=0.05).
Conclusion: The findings can provide guidelines for the optimal management of the treatment protocols with sulfonylurea intended to control the T2D complications.
Keywords: CYP2C9, glibenclamide, gliclazide, retinopathy, nephropathy
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