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The dynamics of self-care in the course of heart failure management: data from the IN TOUCH study

Authors Lycholip E, Thon Aamodt I, Lie I, Šimbelytė T, Puronaitė R, Hillege H, de Vries A, Kraai I, Stromberg A, Jaarsma T, Čelutkienė J

Received 11 January 2018

Accepted for publication 6 February 2018

Published 26 June 2018 Volume 2018:12 Pages 1113—1122

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S162219

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Justinn Cochran

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Johnny Chen


Edita Lycholip,1,2 Ina Thon Aamodt,3,4 Irene Lie,3 Toma Šimbelytė,5 Roma Puronaitė,2,6,7 Hans Hillege,8 Arjen de Vries,8 Imke Kraai,9 Anna Stromberg,10 Tiny Jaarsma,11 Jelena Čelutkienė1,2

1Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania; 2Center of Cardiology and Angiology, Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Clinics, Vilnius, Lithuania; 3Centre for Patient-Centered Heart and Lung Research, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Division of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 4Department of Nursing Science, Institute of Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 5Clinic of Internal Medicine, Centre of Family and Internal Medicine, Vilnius University Santaros Clinics, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania; 6Centre of Informatics and Development, Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Clinics, Vilnius, Lithuania; 7Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania; 8Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 9PRA Health Sciences – Early Development Services, Groningen, the Netherlands; 10Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden; 11Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linkoping University, Norrkoping, Sweden

Introduction:
Self-care is an important patient-reported outcome (PRO) for heart failure (HF) patients, which might be affected by disease management and/or telemonitoring (TM). The number of studies reporting the influence of TM on self-care is limited.
Aims: This study aimed: to assess whether TM, in addition to information-and-communication-technology (ICT)-guided disease management system (ICT-guided DMS), affects self-care behavior; to evaluate the dynamics of self-care during the study; to investigate factors contributing to self-care changes; and to identify a patient profile that predisposes the patient to improvement in self-care.
Methods: In the INnovative ICT-guided-DMS combined with Telemonitoring in OUtpatient clinics for Chronic HF patients (IN TOUCH) study, 177 patients were randomized to either ICT-guided DMS or TM+ICT-guided DMS, with a follow-up of 9 months. The current analysis included 118 participants (mean age: 69±11.5 years; 70% male) who filled the following PRO instruments: the nine-item European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour scale (EHFScBs), Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADs), and Minnesota Living with HF Questionnaire (MLHFQ).
Results:
The baseline level of self-care was better in the TM+ICT-guided-DMS group (n=58) compared to ICT-guided-DMS group (n=60, p=0.023). Self-care behavior improved in the ICT-guided-DMS group (p<0.01) but not in the TM+ICT-guided-DMS group. Factors associated with self-care worsening were as follows: higher physical subscale of MLHFQ (per 10 points, p<0.05), lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (per 5%, p<0.05), lower New York Heart Association (NYHA) class (class III vs class II, p<0.05). The subgroups of patients who had an initial EHFScBs total score >28, or from 17 to 28 with concomitant HADs depression subscale (HADs_D) score ≤8, demonstrated the greatest potential to improve self-care during the study.
Conclusion: TM did not have an advantage on self-care improvement. Poor physical aspect of quality of life, lower LVEF, and lower NYHA class were associated with self-care worsening. The greatest self-care improvement may be achieved in those patients who have low or medium initial self-care level in the absence of depression.

Keywords:
heart failure, self-care, telemonitoring, disease management, patient-reported outcomes

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