Back to Journals » International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease » Volume 11 » Issue 1

The differential effects of inspiratory, expiratory, and combined resistive breathing on healthy lung

Authors Loverdos K, Toumpanakis D, Litsiou E, Karavana V, Glynos C, Magkou C, Theocharis S, Vassilakopoulos T

Received 13 February 2016

Accepted for publication 11 April 2016

Published 19 July 2016 Volume 2016:11(1) Pages 1623—1638

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S106337

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Professor Hsiao-Chi Chuang

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell


Konstantinos Loverdos,1 Dimitrios Toumpanakis,1 Eleni Litsiou,1 Vassiliki Karavana,1 Constantinos Glynos,1 Christina Magkou,2 Stamatios Theocharis,3 Theodoros Vassilakopoulos1

1Department of Critical Care, Pulmonary Unit and Marianthi Simou Applied Biomedical Research and Training Center, Evangelismos General Hospital, University of Athens Medical School, 2Department of Pathology, Evangelismos General Hospital, 31st Department of Pathology, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece

Abstract: Combined resistive breathing (CRB) is the hallmark of obstructive airway disease pathophysiology. We have previously shown that severe inspiratory resistive breathing (IRB) induces acute lung injury in healthy rats. The role of expiratory resistance is unknown. The possibility of a load-dependent type of resistive breathing-induced lung injury also remains elusive. Our aim was to investigate the differential effects of IRB, expiratory resistive breathing (ERB), and CRB on healthy rat lung and establish the lowest loads required to induce injury. Anesthetized tracheostomized rats breathed through a two-way valve. Varying resistances were connected to the inspiratory, expiratory, or both ports, so that the peak inspiratory pressure (IRB) was 20%–40% or peak expiratory (ERB) was 40%–70% of maximum. CRB was assessed in inspiratory/expiratory pressures of 30%/50%, 40%/50%, and 40%/60% of maximum. Quietly breathing animals served as controls. At 6 hours, respiratory system mechanics were measured, and bronchoalveolar lavage was performed for measurement of cell and protein concentration. Lung tissue interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β levels were estimated, and a lung injury histological score was determined. ERB produced significant, load-independent neutrophilia, without mechanical or permeability derangements. IRB 30% was the lowest inspiratory load that provoked lung injury. CRB increased tissue elasticity, bronchoalveolar lavage total cell, macrophage and neutrophil counts, protein and cytokine levels, and lung injury score in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, CRB load dependently deranges mechanics, increases permeability, and induces inflammation in healthy rats. ERB is a putative inflammatory stimulus for the lung.

Keywords: resistive breathing, lung injury, inflammation

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]