The clinical epidemiology of male osteoporosis: a review of the recent literature
Tina Willson,1,2 Scott D Nelson,1,2 Jonathan Newbold,1 Richard E Nelson,2,3 Joanne LaFleur1,2
1University of Utah College of Pharmacy, 2Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, 3University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
Abstract: Osteoporosis, a musculoskeletal disease characterized by decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and an increased risk of fragility fractures, is now recognized as an important public health problem in men. Osteoporotic fractures, particularly of the hip, result in significant morbidity and mortality in men and lead to considerable societal costs. Many national and international organizations now address screening and treatment for men in their osteoporosis clinical guidelines. However, male osteoporosis remains largely underdiagnosed and undertreated. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of recent findings in male osteoporosis, including pathophysiology, epidemiology, and incidence and burden of fracture, and discuss current knowledge about the evaluation and treatment of osteoporosis in males. In particular, clinical practice guidelines, fracture risk assessment, and evidence of treatment effectiveness in men are addressed.
Keywords: screening, treatment, fracture risk, guidelines, diagnosis
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