The burden of selected cancers in the US: health behaviors and health care resource utilization
Received 3 June 2017
Accepted for publication 11 August 2017
Published 28 November 2017 Volume 2017:9 Pages 721—730
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Antonella D'Anneo
Laura Iadeluca,1 Jack Mardekian,1 Pratibha Chander,2 Markay Hopps,1 Geoffrey T Makinson1
1Pfizer Inc., 2Atrium Staffing, New York, NY, USA
Objective: To characterize the disease burden among survivors of those cancers having the highest incidence in the US.
Methods: Adult (≥18 years) survivors of the 11 most frequently diagnosed cancers were identified from publically available data sources, including the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results 9 1973–2012, National Health Interview Survey 2013, and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2011. Chi-square tests and one-way analyses of variance were utilized to assess differences between cancer survivors and non-cancer controls in behavioral characteristics, symptoms and functions, preventative screenings, and health care costs.
Results: Hematologic malignancies, melanoma, and breast, prostate, lung, colon/rectal, bladder, kidney/renal, uterine, thyroid, and pancreatic cancers had the highest incidence rates. Breast cancer had the highest incidence among women (156.4 per 100,000) and prostate cancer among men (167.2 per 100,000). The presence of pain (P=0.0003), fatigue (P=0.0005), and sadness (P=0.0012) was consistently higher in cancer survivors 40–64 years old vs. non-cancer controls. Cancer survivors ≥65 years old had higher rates of any functional limitations (P=0.0039) and reported a lack of exercise (P<0.0001) compared with the non-cancer controls. However, obesity rates were similar between cancer survivors and non-cancer controls. Among cancer survivors, an estimated 13.5 million spent $169.4 billion a year on treatment, with the highest direct expenditures for breast cancer ($39 billion), prostate cancer ($37 billion), and hematologic malignancies ($25 billion). Prescription medications and office-based visits contributed equally as the cost drivers of direct medical spending for breast cancer, while inpatient hospitalization was the driver for prostate (52.8%) and lung (38.6%) cancers.
Conclusion: Understanding the resource utilization implications, health, and well-being of cancer survivors can inform approaches to interventions for improving long-term care.
Keywords: cancer survivor, epidemiology, survivorship, function, health care resource utilization, costs
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