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The Body Composition in Early Pregnancy is Associated with the Risk of Development of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Late During the Second Trimester

Authors Liu Y, Liu J, Gao Y, Zheng D, Pan W, Nie M, Ma L

Received 8 January 2020

Accepted for publication 22 June 2020

Published 6 July 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 2367—2374


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Muthuswamy Balasubramanyam

Yanping Liu,1,* Jing Liu,2,* Yinjie Gao,3 Dan Zheng,2 Wei Pan,2 Min Nie,3 Liangkun Ma4

1Department of Clinical Nutrition, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, CAMS and PUMC, Beijing 100730, People’s Republic of China; 2Guiyang Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, Guiyang Children’s Hospital, Beijing 100730, People’s Republic of China; 3NHC Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, Department of Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, People’s Republic of China

*These authors contributed equally to this work.

Correspondence: Min Nie; Liangkun Ma Email;

Objective: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) causes both short- and long-term harm to mothers and fetuses. It is important to predict the occurrence of GDM as early as possible and take adequate measures to prevent it. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body composition of pregnant women in early pregnancy and the risk of GDM.
Subjects and Methods: A total of 1318 pregnant women in the early stage of pregnancy were recruited from the Guiyang Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital. Detailed clinical data were recorded. Body composition was determined using the bioimpedance method at 13 weeks of gestation. The association between BMI before pregnancy (pre-BMI), fat mass percentage (FMP) and skeletal muscle mass percentage (SMMP) and the results of glucose tolerance screening in the second trimester of pregnancy were analyzed. Fat mass index (FMI) was calculated using fat mass in kilograms as measured using BIA at 13 weeks of pregnancy divided by the square of the woman’s height in meters (kg/m2) and was analyzed to determine the predictive effect of body fat on GDM.
Results: Of the 1318 participants, 249 were diagnosed with GDM and 1069 with normal blood glucose. The FMI and FMP in GDM were higher than in NGT (P< 0.001), while the SMMP in GDM was lower than in NGT (P< 0.001). Overweight women (pre-BMI≥ 24kg/m2) had a higher risk of developing GDM than women with normal pre-BMI (adjusted OR 2.604, 95% CI 1.846– 3.673). Women with FMP greater than 28% had a higher risk of developing to GDM than women with normal-range FMP (adjusted OR 1.572, 95% CI 1.104– 2.240). When FMI is used to predict the incidence of GDM, the area under the curve (AUC) is 65.8%, which is comparable to BMI (AUC=67.2%).
Conclusion: Body composition early during gestation is associated with the risk of GDM. The fat mass index in early pregnancy is a predictor of GDM, and it could be an indicator of the efficacy of any intervention to reduce the risk of GDM.

Keywords: gestational diabetes mellitus, body composition, fat mass percentage, fat mass index, skeletal muscle mass percentage

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