The antiulcer effect of Cibotium barometz leaves in rats with experimentally induced acute gastric ulcer
Authors AL-Wajeeh NS, Hajrezaei M, Al-Henhena N, Kamran S, Bagheri E, Zahedifard M, Saremi K, Noor SM, Ali HM, Abdulla MA
Received 23 February 2016
Accepted for publication 19 September 2016
Published 30 March 2017 Volume 2017:11 Pages 995—1009
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Wei Duan
Nahla Saeed Al-Wajeeh,1 Maryam Hajrezaie,1 Nawal Al-Henhena,1 Sareh Kamran,1 Elham Bagheri,1 Maryam Zahedifard,1 Kamelia Saremi,1 Suzita Mohd Noor,1 Hapipah Mohd Ali,2 Mahmood Ameen Abdulla1
1Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Abstract: Cibotium barometz is a pharmaceutical plant customarily used in traditional medicine in Malaysia for the treatment of different diseases, such as gastric ulcer. The gastroprotective effect of C. barometz leaves against ethanol-induced gastric hemorrhagic abrasions in Sprague Dawley rats has been evaluated in terms of medicinal properties. Seven groups of rats (normal control and ulcerated control groups, omeprazole 20 mg/kg, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of C. barometz correspondingly) were used in antiulcer experiment and pretreated with 10% Tween 20. After 1 hour, the normal group was orally administered 10% Tween 20, whereas absolute alcohol was fed orally to ulcerated control, omeprazole, and experimental groups. Gastric’s homogenate were assessed for endogenous enzymes activities. Stomachs were examined macroscopically and histologically. Grossly, the data demonstrated a significant decrease in the ulcer area of rats pretreated with plant extract in a dose-dependent manner with respect to the ulcerated group. Homogenates of the gastric tissue exhibited significantly increased endogenous enzymes activities in rats pretreated with C. barometz extract associated with the ulcerated control group. Histology of rats pretreated with C. barometz extract group using hematoxylin and eosin staining exhibited a moderate-to-mild disruption of the surface epithelium with reduction in submucosal edema and leucocyte infiltration in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, it showed heat shock protein70 protein up-expression and BCL2-associated X protein downexpression. These outcomes might be attributed to the gastroprotective and antioxidative effects of the plant.
Keywords: Cibotium barometz leaves, antioxidants, acute toxicity, antiulcer, histology
Peptic ulcer is one of the widespread illnesses affecting humans. The most benign injuries in the stomach that are known as gastric ulcers affect many people around the world.1 An imbalance between destructive factors and mucosal defence mechanisms in the mucosal epithelium causes gastric ulcer.2 Many destructive factors enhance the occurrence of acute gastrointestinal disorders such as a higher secretion of acid–pepsin, a lower secretion of mucus and bicarbonate, severe psychological or physical stress, smoking, imbalanced bile salt secretion, Helicobacter pylori infection, ingestion of ethanol, aspirin, and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and hereditary factors.3,4 Several investigations have concerned the production of oxygen-derived free radicals in the pathogenesis of stomach ulcers.5
Additionally, the higher level of lipid peroxidation has a destroying effect on stomach glandular epithelial, which causes injury provoked by consuming ethanol.6 Antioxidants are well known to restrain lipid peroxidation in addition to scavenging free radicals.7 Therefore, there is a demand for medicinal drugs that are capable of scavenging these free radicals as well as create helpful outcomes against gastric sores. In living organisms, the initial row of protection against free radicals is the oxidative stress enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). SOD catalyses the dismutation of superoxide anions by changing them to hydrogen peroxides. The poisonous hydrogen peroxide is transformed into molecular oxygen and water by means of catalase or glutathione peroxidase.8 Drugs such as antacids and proton pump inhibitors (omeprazole), which are employed in the management of gastric sores, are sometimes unsuccessful or not highly efficient. This might be due to a drug interaction or unpleasant side effects. A large number of researchers have reported on the numerous remedial plants applied in folk medicine as antiulcer mediators.9–13 Plant extracts are attractive sources of new drugs and have been shown to produce promising results in the treatment of gastric ulcers.14–16
Cibotium barometz (L.) J Sim (family Dicksoniaceae) is also known as Golden Hair Dog Fern. It is a tropical and subtropical plant.17 This remedial plant is employed to prevent hemorrhage and for the management of rheumatism, polyuria along with leucorrhoea.18 Earlier studies have shown that this plant possesses antioxidative, tyrosinase inhibiting as well as antibacterial actions.19 C. barometz extract as well has the potential for inhibition of post-menopausal osteoporosis.20 The beneficial results of C. barometz leaf extract on acute gastric cytoprotective properties are yet to be adequately investigated in trial studies. Consequently, the current study aimed to appraise the gastroprotective potential of the ethanolic extract of C. barometz against ethanol-induced stomach ulcers in rodents.
Materials and methods
C. barometz leaves were collected and identified by the Herbarium of Rimba Ilmu, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, voucher no KLU 48648. The dried plant (100 g) was soaked in ethanol (95%, 900 mL) for 5 days. Buchi Rotary Evaporator R-215 (Chemoph-arm Sdn Bhd, Switzerland) was used to extract the solution.
For acute toxicity, C. barometz extract was dissolved in 10% Tween 20 and administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 2 g/kg and 5 g/kg. For antiulcer activity against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury, it was dissolved in 10% Tween 20 at doses of 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg body weight for oral administration, in accordance with earlier reports.21
Antioxidant activity in vitro
Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay
The ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of the ethanol extract of C. barometz was assessed according to the method mentioned with minor modifications in Benzie et al’s study.22 The FRAP reagent was prepared freshly from acetate buffer (pH 3.6), 10 mM TPTZ [2,4,6-Tri(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine] solution in 40 mM HCl and 20 mM Fe (III) chloride solution in the proportion of 10:1:1 (v/v), respectively. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), ascorbic acid, quercetin, and gallic acid were used as controls; 10 μL of plant extract, standard, and controls were added to 300 μL of the FRAP reagent (triplicate) and left in the dark for 4 minutes. Then the absorbance was recorded at 593 nm using a spectrophotometer of power wave ×340 ELISA Reader (Bio-Tek Instruments, Inc., Winooski, VT, USA). The standard curve was created linearly (R2 =0.998) between 100 and 1,000 M FeSO4.
Scavenging of diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl radical activity assay
The antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of C. barometz was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical based on the electron transfer reaction between DPPH reagent and the plant extract. The DPPH method designated by Gorinstein23 with minimal modification was used. A stock solution (1 mg/1 mL) of the plant extract was prepared and then diluted to produce six different concentrations (50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, 3.125, 1.56 μg/mL) and an antioxidant standard (ascorbic acid) was used. Five microliters of each plant extract and standard were mixed with 195 μL DPPH (40× dilution) in triplicate. After that, each mixture was incubated at 37°C. The absorbance value was measured for 2 hours at 20-minute intervals using a spectrophotometer of power wave ×340 ELISA Reader at 515 nm. The radical scavenging activity was calculated from according to the following equation:
AB is the absorption of the blank sample; AA is the absorption of the tested samples.
The inhibitory concentration of 50% was determined as well as the kinetics of DPPH scavenging reaction. BHT, ascorbic acid, quercetin, and gallic acid were also verified against DPPH as positive controls.
Acute toxicity test and experimental animals
Healthy adult Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, both male and female (6–8 weeks old), were obtained from the Animal House, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. The animal ethics for this study was approved by the Ethics Council of Animal Experimental Unit (AEU) under the ethics No: PM/30/05/2012/NSIAW [R]. The body weight of the rats was between 162 and 190 g. The rats were given standard rat pellets and tap water. An acute toxicity study was carried out to determine a safe dose.24 Histology and serum biochemical parameters were analyzed as described in detail previously. Throughout the experiment, all rats received human care according to the criteria outlined in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals prepared by the National Academy of Sciences and published by the National Institute of Health.25,26
In this trial, a reference antiulcer drug (omeprazole) was employed as well as obtained from the University Malaya Medical Centre Pharmacy. Omeprazole was dissolved in 10% Tween 20 and fed orally to the rats at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight (5 mL/kg).27
Ethanol-induced gastric ulceration
The animals were distributed into seven groups of 6 rats each. Before the experiment, they were food fasted for 24 hours and water fasted for 2 hours. The rats were housed in wire-bottomed cages to prevent coprophagy. Groups 1 (vehicle group) and 2 (ulcerated group) were administered orally with 10% Tween 20 (5 mL/kg). Group 3 was given 20 mg/kg omeprazole orally, as the reference control group. Groups 4, 5, 6, and 7 were given oral dosages of 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of C. barometz ethanol extract, respectively. One hour later, Group 1 was treated with 10% Tween 20 (5 mL/kg) and Groups 2–7 were given absolute ethanol (5 mL/kg).13 All rats were anesthetized after 1 hour using xylazine and ketamine, followed by cervical dislocation and direct excision of their stomachs.28
Measurement of gastric juice acidity and mucus content
Each stomach was opened along the greater curvature. Gastric contents were analyzed for hydrogen ion concentration using pH meter titration with 0.1 N NaOH. The acid content and gastric mucosa were assessed to measure the gastric juice acidity.29
Gross gastric lesion evaluation
Ulcers of the gastric mucosa appeared as extended bands of hemorrhagic lesions parallel to the long axis of the gut. The gastric mucosa of each rat was examined for injuries. The length and width of the ulcer (mm) were measured with a plan meter (10×10 mm2 = ulcer area [UA]) under a dissecting microscope (1.8×). The ulcerated area was determined by calculating the number of small squares, 2×2 mm, covering the length and width of each ulcer band. The calculation of the areas of all lesions for each stomach was done and the inhibition percentage (1%) were calculated using the following formula according to the recommendation of AlRashdi.30
Histological evaluation of gastric lesions
Hematoxylin and eosin staining
The gastric wall specimens were fixed in 10% buffered formalin, processed, and embedded in paraffin. Sections of the stomach were prepared at a thickness of 5 μm and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological and tissue architecture estimation.31
Mucosal glycoprotein staining
Mucosal glycoprotein production stained with periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) was assessed using PAS following the manufacturer’s instructions (Sigma periodic acid–Schiff commercial kit). Staining with PAS was carried out for evaluation of the variations in glycoproteins (acidic and basic). A light microscope (Nikon, Tokyo, Japan) was used to photograph and observe the mucus produced.32
Each tissue section was heated at 60°C for 25 minutes in an oven. Then they were deparaffinized in xylene and rehydrated by graded alcohol. Antigen retrieval process proceeded in 10 mM sodium citrate buffer boiled in a microwave. The immunohistochemical staining was performed using an animal research commercial kit to detect the immune-staining localization of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) (1:100) and BCL2-associated X protein (Bax; 1:50) proteins on tissue sections. The two proteins were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc., Santa Cruz, CA, USA. Positive findings of the immunohistochemical staining appear as brown stains under the light microscope.31
Antioxidant activity of gastric homogenate
Preparation of homogenate
The gastric tissue samples were washed thoroughly with ice-cold phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Homogenates (10% (w/v)) were then prepared with ice-cold 50 mM (PBS) (pH 7.4) using a homogenizer (Polytron, Heidolph RZR 1, Schwabach, Germany). The homogenates were centrifuged for 15 minutes at 10,000 rpm at 4°C using refrigerated centrifuge Rotofix 32 (Hettich Zentrifugen, Tuttlingen, Germany). The supernatant was used for examination of antioxidant activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in vivo.12
Measurement of antioxidant activities of stomach homogenate
The SOD, catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GPx) activities of the gastric tissues homogenate were assessed using commercial kits (Cayman Chemical Co., Ann Arbor, MI, USA). The manufacturer’s procedures were used for the determination of activities in the gastric tissue supernatant of each sample.32
Measurements of lipid peroxidation (MDA) level of stomach homogenate
Lipid peroxidation of the mucus membrane in the gastric tissue homogenate was measured using commercial kits (Cayman Chemical Co.).33
All values were evaluated as mean ± standard error of the mean. The statistical significance of differences between groups was measured using SPSS statistical program software version 20 through one-way analysis of variance with post hoc Tukey’s multiple comparison test. A value of P<0.05 was considered significant.
In vitro antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of C. barometz leaves
Ferric reducing antioxidant power
The total antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of C. barometz was measured using the FRAP test. Figure 1 shows the reduction of ferric to ferrous ions, which indicates a greater FRAP value for C. barometz leaves (915.7±0.071 μmol Fe (II)/g) than BHT (261.0±0.009 μmol Fe (II)/g) and ascorbic acid (457.7±0.005 μmol Fe (II)/g). However, the value is lower than that of quercetin (1,544.3±0.012 μmol Fe (II)/g) and gallic acid (1,774.3±0.002 μmol Fe (II)/g) standards.
Scavenging of DPPH assay
The scavenging of the DPPH free radicals by C. barometz leaf ethanol extract was evaluated using a DPPH assay. Figure 2 illustrates the inhibition percentage of the DPPH free radical scavenging activity of C. barometz leaf ethanol extract, which was 87.5% with an IC50 value of 30.1±0.05 μg/mL. This was compared to the standards BHT, ascorbic acid, quercetin, and gallic acid. The % inhibition of DPPH free-radical scavenging activity of the standards was 51.63%, 64.11%, 87.52%, and 55.47% with an IC50 value of 9.1±0.15 μg/mL, 4.9±0.11 μg/mL, 1.8±0.04 μg/mL, 1.4±0.13 μg/mL, respectively.
Toxicity test of C. barometz leaves in experimental animals
None of the animals that were fed with C. barometz leaf ethanol extract displayed any mortality or toxic symptoms during the experimental study. There were no body weight changes or abnormal physiological or behavioral variations at dosages of 2 and 5 g/kg following extract administration (Tables 1 and 2). The histological analysis and biochemical evaluation on the liver and kidney and their weights were normal in comparison to the control groups (Figure 3, Tables 3–8). Subsequently, male and female SD rats did not exhibit any significant signs of toxicity at the above dosages.
Table 1 Effects of Cibotium barometz leaves extract on kidney biochemical parameters in female rats
Results revealed that pretreatment of SD rats with C. barometz leaf ethanol extract significantly diminished the UA compared to the ulcerated group (Table 9, Figure 4). The inhibition percentage of the UA in rats pre-fed with C. barometz leaf ethanol extract was increased in a dose-dependent manner.
Gastric mucus content and acidity
As the results show in Table 9, the ulcerated SD rat group produced the lowest gastric mucosa mucus content, although animal groups pretreated with G7 (500 mg/kg) and G6 (250 mg/kg) of C. barometz leaf ethanol extract showed a significant increase in the mucus weight (g) with respect to G2 (ulcerated group). Pretreatment with C. barometz leaf ethanol extract (G4 to G7) produced a significant increase in the pH of the gastric contents compared to the ulcerated group G2.
Measurement of gastric antioxidant enzymes and membrane lipid peroxidation (MDA)
The ulcer control rats revealed a major reduction in antioxidant (SOD, CAT, and GPx) endogenous enzyme activities. Rats pretreated with C. barometz leaf ethanol extract demonstrated an elevation of all antioxidant activities with respect to the ulcer control rats, as shown in Figure 5A–C. The SOD enzyme activities in Figure 5A were significantly higher at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of C. barometz leaf ethanol extract than ulcer control rats. Rats fed with C. barometz leaf ethanol extract showed significant increase in CAT activity compared to ulcer control rats Figure 5B. The GPx enzyme activities in Figure 5C for gastric mucosal homogenates reveal a significant increase in the rats pretreated with C. barometz leaf ethanol extract and omeprazole with respect to G2. On the other hand, the MDA enzyme activities of C. barometz leaf ethanol extract in G4–G7 groups were significantly lower than in the G2 ulcerated control group as seen in Figure 5D.
Histological evaluation of gastric lesions
Hematoxylin and eosin staining and PAS staining
Histological observation demonstrated comprehensive damage to the gastric mucosa in the ulcerated control group of animals. Furthermore, the ulcerated rat control group had necrotic lesions in the deep gastric mucosa, which showed extensive leucocyte infiltration and edema of the submucosal layer, as illustrated in Figure 6. Otherwise, the animals pre-treated with C. barometz leaf ethanol extract in the G4–G7 groups displayed relatively enhanced protection of the gastric mucosa with a depression or absence of infiltration of leucocytes and edema (Figure 6). C. barometz extract demonstrated protective effects in a dose-dependent manner and revealed remarkably better protection of the gastric mucosa. The gastric mucosa in the pretreated experimental groups, depending on the dose, showed a gradual increase in PAS staining intensity by the accumulation of the magenta color in the mucosal cell layer compared to the ulcerated group (Figure 7). Nevertheless, this magenta staining decreased and was observed to be not plentiful in the gastric mucosa of the ulcerated group where the ulcer was induced with ethanol.
In the gastric mucosa, as shown in Figure 8, the expression of the HSP70 protein was downregulated in the ulcerated control group G2 but upregulated in the animals pretreated with omeprazole (G3) or with C. barometz leaf ethanol extract (G4 to G7). Furthermore, the immunohistochemical staining of Bax protein in the gastric mucosa elucidated upregulation in the ulcerated group while downregulation was manifested in rats pretreated with C. barometz leaf ethanol extract (Figure 9).
The results of the present work clearly demonstrated that oral feeding of C. barometz extract did not manifest any signs or symptoms of toxicity and this observation is consistent with the outcome of other studies using different herbal plant extracts.34–37 The data established that C. barometz extract has potent antioxidant activities and free radical scavenging effects in vitro. Similarly, the herbal medicine has antioxidant efficiency and causes neutralization of free radicals as reported by several co-researchers.38–41
This investigative study demonstrated that ethanol induces severe disruption of stomach mucosa, which results in the reduction of the release of bicarbonates and mucus, and increases the acidity of gastric content. Similar results have been reported by several coresearchers.15,42,43 The judgment of this study additionally illustrated that C. barometz extract significantly decreases the secretion of gastric acid. The results here are analogous to the previous reports.25,44,45 It is well-established that gastric acid secretion plays a role in gastric ulcer.34 It is promising that amplification of gastric mucus may contribute to the gastroprotective consequence of C. barometz extract. The gastric mucus layer is believed to play a vital role in mucosal protection against endogenous aggressors such as acid and pepsin and also acts as a mediator of restoration of the mucosa.46,47 The results of the current experiment demonstrated that oral administration of ethanol induces severe destruction of the gastric mucosa, resulting in disruption of vascular endothelium and increased vascular permeability, edema, and leucocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer. Rats fed with C. barometz extract showed remarkably protected gastric epithelium. Several previous studies have published results that are in agreement with the observations.2–4,37,48
This investigation demonstrates that administration of ethanol caused a disruption of the gastric mucosa layer that protects the gastric mucosa and a decrease in the activity of protective factors such as SOD, GPx, and CAT enzymes. Moreover, there was an increase in the microvascular permeability and lipid peroxidation of the cell membrane in the stomach epithelium. Therefore, it might be proposed that C. barometz extract mediates the protection of the gastric mucosa as a result of its scavenging mechanism.49 Furthermore, C. barometz extract demonstrated protection of the cell membrane via the activities of SOD and CAT elevations from reactive oxygen species (ROS) attack. ROS is one of the main destructive mechanisms of ethanol in gastric cells.44,50 On the other hand, a significant decrease in the MDA levels of animals pre-treated with C. barometz extract was observed, which might be due to the reduction in oxidative gastric injury.39,51 These findings were matched with the previous study.52,53 Further, it suggests that GPx plays a remarkable intracellular antioxidant role in the defence of the gastric mucosa from impairment.10,54–57 In the present study, the lack of a submucosal area in the gastric layer mucosa and reduction of leukocyte infiltration in gastric wall sections is resulted of pre-fed rats with C. barometz. Edema and hemorrhagic abrasions in the mucosal layer in the ulcer control group is known as an indicator of ethanol damage. These effects agree with other results reported by several researchers.32,56,58–62 In the PAS staining assessment, this study demonstrated that C. barometz extract heightened the content of glycoprotein in the gastric mucosa (the magenta color). The increase in the production of mucus was an indicator of local gastric mucosal defence, which is consistent with the reports published by many investigators.29,63–65 Immunohistochemistry results indicated that pretreatment of rats with C. barometz extract produced upregulation of HSP70 protein, which protected the cells from oxidative stress or heat shock. Moreover, the downregulation of HSP70 protein expression is one of the types of gastric damage that was characteristic of the ulcer group, which is similar to studies reported by a huge number of coworkers.21,27,66,67 The generation of ROS by ethanol led to downregulation of HSP70 expression and upregulation of Bax proteins. Otherwise, Bax protein expression was downregulated and HSP70 protein expression was upregulated in the group pretreated with C. barometz leaf extract compared to the ulcerated group, which agrees with the results of many researchers reported.10,12,35,36,68
To sum up, C. barometz leaves presented antiulcer effects against ethanol-induced gastric lesions in the animal model significantly and dose-dependently. The gastroprotective consequence of C. barometz could be associated with the effective direct radical scavenging activity and increasing of the cellular antioxidant activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx levels along with decreasing of lipid peroxidation with upregulation of HSP70 protein and downregulation of Bax protein.
The present study was sponsored by the University of Malaya grant RP043A/15HTM UMRG and PG054-2012.
The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.
Lau JY, Sung J, Hill C, Henderson C, Howden CW, Metz DC. Systematic review of the epidemiology of complicated peptic ulcer disease: incidence, recurrence, risk factors and mortality. Digestion. 2011;84(2):102–113.
Amaral GP, de Carvalho NR, Barcelos RP, et al. Protective action of ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in gastric ulcer prevention induced by ethanol in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;55:48–55.
Al Batran R, Al-Bayaty F, Al-Obaidi, et al. In vivo antioxidant and antiulcer activity of Parkia speciosa ethanolic leaf extract against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. PLoS One. 2013;8(5):64751.
Mishra V, Agrawal M, Onasanwo SA, et al. Anti-secretory and cyto-protective effects of chebulinic acid isolated from the fruits of Terminalia chebula on gastric ulcers. Phytomedicin. 2013;20(6): 506–511.
Naito Y, Yoshikawa T, Matsuyama K, et al. Effects of oxygen radical scavengers on the quality of gastric ulcer healing in rats. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1995;21(Suppl 1):82–86.
Takuji M, Masami D. Lipid peroxidation: a possible role in gastric damage induced by ethanol in rats. Life Sci. 1986;38(23):2163–2167.
Khosla P, Karan R, Bhargava V. Effect of garlic oil on ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. Phytother Res. 2004;18(1):87–91.
Aksoy Y, Balk M, Ogus H, Oze N. The mechanism of inhibition of human erythrocyte catalase by azide. Turkish J Biol. 2004;28(2–4):65–70.
Bharti S, Wahane VD, Kumar VL. Protective effect of Calotropis procera latex extracts on experimentally-induced gastric ulcers in rat. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;127(2):440–444.
Abdelwahab SI, Taha MM, Abdulla MA, et al. Gastroprotective mechanism of Bauhinia thonningii Schum. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;148(1):277–286.
Sowndhararajan K, Kang SC. Protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Acacia ferruginea DC. against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;148(1):175–181.
Sidahmed H, Hashim N, Abdulla M, et al. Antisecretory, gastroprotective, antioxidant and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Zerumbone from Zingiber Zerumbet (L.) Smith. PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0121060.
Rahim NA, Hassandarvish P, Golbabapour S, Ismail S, Tayyab S, Abdulla MA. Gastroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in Sprague-Dawley rats. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:416409.
Akthar MS, Munir M. Evaluation of antiulcerogenic effect of Solanum nigrum, Brassica oleracea and Ocimum basilicum in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 1989;27(1–2):163–172.
Abdulla MA, Ismail SM, Noor SM, Ahmed KAA, Al HM. Evaluation of the anti-ulcer activities of Morus alba extracts in experimentally-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Biomed ResIndia. 2009;20(1):35–39.
Taha MM, Salga MS, Ali HM, Abdulla MA, Abdelwahab SI, Hadi AH. Gastroprotective activities of Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult. revisited: Role of arbutin. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;141(1):273–281.
Smith AR, Pryer KM, Schuettpelz E, Korall P, Schneider H, Wolf PG. A classification for extant ferns. Taxon. 2006;55(3):705–731.
Ong H, Nordiana M. Malay ethno-medico botany in Machang, Kelantan, Malaysia. Fitoterapia. 1999;70(5):502–513.
Cuong NX, Minh CV, Kiem PV, et al. Inhibitors of osteoclast formation from rhizomes of Cibotium barometz. J Nat Prod. 2009;72(9):1673–1677.
Zhao X, Wu ZX, Zhang Y, et al. Anti-osteoporosis activity of Cibotium barometz extract on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;137(3):1083–1088.
Golbabapour S, Hajrezaie M, Hassandarvish P, et al. Acute toxicity and gastroprotective role of M. pruriens in ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in rats. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:974185.
Benzie IF, Strain J. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of antioxidant power: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem. 1996;239(1):70–76.
Gorinstein S, Martin-Belloso O, Katrich E, et al. Comparison of the contents of the main biochemical compounds and the antioxidant activity of some Spanish olive oils as determined by four different radical scavenging tests. J Nutr Biochem. 2003;14(3):154–159.
Hor SY, Ahmad M, Farsi E, Lim CP, Asmawi MZ, Yam MF. Acute and subchronic oral toxicity of Coriolus versicolor standardized water extract in Sprague-Dawley rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;137(3):1067–1076.
OECD 2005. OECD guideline for testing of chemicals. Environ Med J. 2005;2005:5.
Hajrezaie M, Salehen N, Karimian H, et al. Biochanin a gastroprotective effects in ethanol-induced gastric mucosal ulceration in rats. PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0121529.
Wasman S, Mahmood A, Salehhuddin H, Zahra A, Salmah I. Cytoprotective activities of Polygonum minus aqueous leaf extract on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. J Med Plants Res. 2010;4(24):2658–2665.
Ketuly KA, Hadi AH, Golbabapour S, et al. Acute toxicity and gastroprotection studies with a newly synthesized steroid. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e59296.
Wong J, Abdulla M, Raman J, et al. Gastroprotective effects of Lion’s mane mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. (Aphyllophor, omycetideae) extract against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:9–18.
AlRashdi AS, Salama SM, Alkiyumi SS, et al. Mechanisms of gastroprotective effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Jasminum sambac against HCl/ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:786426.
Li W, Huang H, Niu X, Fan T, Mu Q, Li H. Protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013;272(1):21–29.
Salga MS, Ali HM, Abdulla MA, Abdelwahab SI, Hussain PD, Hadi AHA. Mechanistic studies of the anti-ulcerogenic activity and acute toxicity evaluation of dichlorido-copper (II)-4-(2-5-bromobenzylideneamino) ethyl) piperazin-1-ium phenolate complex against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats. Molecules. 2011;16:8654–8669.
Hajrezaie M, Salehen N, Karimian H, et al. Biochanin a gastroprotective effects in ethanol-induced gastric mucosal ulceration in rats. PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0121529.
Dokmeci D, Akpolat M, Aydogdu N, Doganay L, Turan FN. L-carnitine inhibits ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Pharmacol Rep. 2005;57(4):481–488.
Ibrahim MM, Ali HM, Abdullah MA, Hassandarvish P. Acute toxicity and gastroprotective effect of the schiff base ligand 1H-Indole-3-ethylene-5-nitrosalicylaldimine and its nickel (II) complex on ethanol induced gastric lesions in rats. Molecules. 2012;17(10):12449–12459.
Ismail IF, Golbabapour S, Hassandarvish P, et al. Gastroprotective activity of Polygonum chinense aqueous leaf extract on ethanol-induced hemorrhagic mucosal lesions in rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:404012.
Nordin N, Salama SM, Golbabapour S, et al. Anti-ulcerogenic effect of methanolic extracts from Enicosanthellum pulchrum (king) Heusden against ethanol-induced acute gastric lesion in animal models. PLoS One. 2014;9(11):e111925.
Rouhollahi E, Moghadamtousi SZ, Hamdi O, et al. Evaluation of acute toxicity and gastroprotective activity of Curcuma purpurascens Bl, rhizome against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. BMC Complement Alternat Med. 2014;14(1):378.
Abdelwahab SI, Moham S, Abdulla MA, et al. The methanolic extract of Boesenbergia rotunda (L) Mansf. and its major compound pinostrobin induced anti-ulcerogenic property in vivo: possible involvement of indirect antioxidant action. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;137(2):963–970.
Qader SW, Abdulla MA, Chua LS, Najim N, Zain MM, Hamdan S. Antioxidant, total phenolic content and cytotoxicity evaluation of selected Malaysian plants. Molecules. 2011;16(4):3433–3443.
Wasman S, Mahmood A, Chua Lee S. Antioxidant and gastroprotective activities of andrographis paniculata (Hempedu Bumi) in Sprague Dawley rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2011;49(10):767–772.
Alnajar ZA, Abdulla MA, Ali HM, Mohammed AA, Hamid AH. Acute toxicity evaluation, antibacterial, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of melastoma malabathricum. Molecules. 2012;17(3): 3547–3559.
Indran M, Mahmood A, Kuppusamy UR. Protective effect of carica papaya L leaf extract against alcohol induced acute gastric damage and blood oxidative stress in rats. West Indian Med J. 2008;57(4):323–326.
Ishid K, Kojima R, Tsubi M, Tsuda Y, Ito M. Effects of artichoke leaf extract on acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2010;33(2):223–229.
Mahmood AA, Mariod AA, Al-Bayaty SF, Abdel-Wahab SI. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of Gynura procumbens leaf extract against experimentally-induced gastric lesions in rats. J Med Plants Res. 2010;4(8):685–669.
Abdulla MA, Noor SM, Sabaratnam V, Abdullah N, Wong KH, Ali HM. Effect of culinary-medicinal lion’s mane mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae), on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2008;10(4):325–330.
47.Wallace J, Whittle B. Role of mucus in the repair of gastric epithelial damage in the rat: inhibition of epithelial recovery by mucolytic agents. Gastroenterology. 1986;91(3):603–611.
Matúz J. Role of mucus in mucosal protection through ethanol and pepsin damage models. Acta Physiol Hung. 1992;80(1–4):189–194.
Abdulla MA, Fard AA, Sabaratnam V, Wong KH, Kuppusamy UR, Abdullah NS. Potential activity of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus in accelerating wound healing in rats. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2011:13(1):33–39.
Boligon AA, de Freitas RB, de Brum TF, et al. Antiulcerogenic activity of Scutia buxifolia on gastric ulcers induced by ethanol in rats. Acta Pharm Sin B. 2014;4(5):358–367.
Ineu R, Pereira M, Aschner M, Nogueira C, Zeni G, Rocha J. Diphenyl diselenide reverses gastric lesions in rats: involvement of oxidative stress. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46(9):3023–3029.
Jaitak V, Sharma K, Kalia K, et al. Antioxidant activity of Potentilla fulgens an alpine plant of western Himalaya. J Food Compost Anal. 2010;23(2):142–147.
Omar N, Abdullah N, Kuppusamy U, Abdulla M, Sabaratnam K. Nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity and antiulcer potential of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) mycelia extract. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:8–16.
Mustafa M, Hapipah MA, Abdulla MA, Ward TR. Synthesis, structural characterization, and anti-ulcerogenic activity of schiff base ligands derived from tryptamine and 5-chloro, 5-nitro, 3,5 ditertiarybutyl salicylaldehyde and their nickel(Ii), copper(Ii), and zinc(Ii) complexes. Polyhedron. 2009;28(18):3993–3998.
Diniz LR, Vieira CF, Santos EC, et al. Gastroprotective effects of the essential oil of Hyptis crenata Pohl ex Benth. on gastric ulcer models. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;149(3):694–700.
Rozza AL, Moraes Tde DM, Kushima H, et al. Gastroprotective mechanisms of citrus lemon (Rutaceae) essential oil and its majority compounds limonene and β-pinene: involvement of heat-shock protein-70, vasoactive intestinal peptide, glutathione, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2. Chem Biol Interact. 2011;189(1–2):82–89.
Qader SW, Abdulla MA, Chua LS, Sirat HM, Hamdan S. Pharmacological mechanisms underlying gastroprotective activities of the fractions obtained from Polygonum minus in Sprague Dawley rats. Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13(2):1481–1496.
Choi HS, Lim JY, Chun HJ, et al. The effect of polaprezinc on gastric mucosal protection in rats with ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage: comparison study with rebamipide. Life Sci. 2013;93(2–3):69–77.
Rao V, Verma A, Vijayakumar M, Rastogi S. Gastroprotective effect of standardized extract of Ficus glomerata fruit on experimental gastric ulcers in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;115(2):323–326.
Mahmood A, Fouad A, Noor S, Wasman S, Saba F. Anti-ulcerogenic effects of Nigella sativa in ethanol-induced gastric injuries in rats. J Med Plants Res. 2011;5(23):5577–5583.
Gwaram NS, Musalam L, Ali HM, Abdulla MA. Synthesis of 2′-(5-Chloro-2-Hydroxybenzylidene) Benzenesulfanohydrazide Schiff base and its anti-ulcer activity in ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. Trop J Pharm Res. 2012;11(2):251–257.
Dhiyaaldeen SM, Amin ZA, Darvish PH, et al. Protective effect of 1-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-3-m-tolyl-propanone chalcone in indomethacin-induced gastric reosive damage in rats. BMC Vet Res. 2014;10:961–990.
Halabi MF, Shakir RM, Bardi DA, et al. Gastroprotective activity of ethyl-4-[(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene) amino] benzoate against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal ulcer in rats. PLoS One. 2014;9(5):95908.
Sairam K, Priyambada S, Aryya NC, Goel RK. Gastroduodenal ulcer protective activity of Asparagus racemosus: an experimental, biochemical and histological study. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;86(1):1–10.
Alqasoumi S. Gastric antisecretory and antiulcer effects of ajowan “Carum copticum” in rats. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011;5(5):572–576.
Salga MS, Ali HM, Abdulla MA, Abdelwahab SI. Gastroprotective activity and mechanism of novel dichloride-zinc (II)-4-2(2-(5-methoxybenzy-lidenamino) ethyl) piperazin-1-iumphenolate complex on ethanol-induced gastric ulceration. Chem Biol Interact. 2012;195(2):144–153.
Hajrezaie M, Golbabapour S, Hassandarvish P, et al. Acute toxicity and gastroprotection studies of a new Schiff base derived copper (II) complex against ethanol-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e51537.
Jainu M, Mohan K, Devi C. Gastroprotective effect of Cissus quadrangularis extract in rats with experimentally induced ulcer. Indian J Med Res. 2006;123(6):799–780.
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF]