The antitoxic effects of quercetin and quercetin-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles (QNPs) against H2O2-induced toxicity in PC12 cells
Received 17 April 2019
Accepted for publication 27 June 2019
Published 26 August 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 6813—6830
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Anderson Oliveira Lobo
Zahra Yarjanli,1 Kamran Ghaedi,1 Abolghasem Esmaeili,1 Ali Zarrabi,2,3 Soheila Rahgozar1
1Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran; 2Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran; 3Sabanci University Nanotechnology Research and Application Center (SUNUM), Istanbul, Turkey
Correspondence: Kamran Ghaedi
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Isfahan, Hezar Jerib Ave., Azadi Square, 81746 Isfahan, Iran
Tel +98 313 793 2479
Fax +98 313 793 2456
Background: We recently showed that quercetin-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles (QNPs) promoted the bioavailability of quercetin (Qu) in the brain of rats and improved the learning and memory of diabetic rats. In this study, we characterized the modifications in the antitoxic effects of Qu after conjugation.
Materials and methods: We conjugated Qu to dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (DNPs) and characterized DNPs and QNPs using FTIR, XRD, DLS, Fe-SEM, and EDX analyzes. The antiradical properties of Qu, DNPs, and QNPs were compared by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity assay. Catalase-like activities of DNPs and QNPs were estimated using catalase activity assay kit, and the antitoxic effects of Qu and QNPs were evaluated with spectrophotometry, MTT assay, flow cytometry, and real-time q-PCR.
Results: Qu had a stronger anti-radical activity than DNPs and its activity decreased after being conjugated to DNPs. The catalase-like activity of DNPs remained intact after conjugation. DNPs had less toxicity on PC12 cells viabilities as compared to free Qu, and the conjugation of Qu with DNPs attenuated its cytotoxicity. Furthermore, MTT assay results indicated 24 h pretreatment with Qu had more protective effects than QNPs against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity, while Qu and QNPs had the same effects for 48 and 72 h incubation. Although the total antioxidant capacity of Qu was attenuated after conjugation, the results of flow cytometry and real-time q-PCR confirmed that 24 h pretreatment with the low concentrations of Qu and QNPs had the similar antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects against the cytotoxicity of H2O2.
Conclusion: Qu and QNPs showed the similar protective activities against H2O2-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. Given the fact that QNPs have magnetic properties, they may serve as suitable carriers to be used in neural research and treatment.
Keywords: antitoxic effect, iron oxide nanoparticles, quercetin, PC12 cells