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The skeletal muscle circadian clock: current insights

Authors Nakao R, Nikawa T, Oishi K

Received 4 May 2017

Accepted for publication 23 September 2017

Published 13 November 2017 Volume 2017:7 Pages 47—57

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CPT.S116569

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Akshita Wason

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Marc Hebert

Reiko Nakao,1 Takeshi Nikawa,2 Katsutaka Oishi1,3,4

1Biological Clock Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, 2Department of Nutritional Physiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School, Tokushima, 3Department of Applied Biological Science, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, 4Department of Computational and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Japan

Abstract:
Skeletal muscle functions in locomotion, postural support, and energy metabolism. The loss of skeletal muscle mass and function leads to diseases such as sarcopenia and metabolic disorders. Inactivity (lack of exercise) and an imbalanced diet (increased fat or decreased protein intake) are thought to be involved in the prevalence of such pathologies. On the other hand, recent epidemiological studies of humans have suggested that circadian disruption caused by shift work, jet lag, and sleep disorders is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Experimental studies of mice deficient in clock genes have also identified skeletal muscle defects, suggesting a molecular link between circadian clock machinery and skeletal muscle physiology. Furthermore, accumulating evidence about chronotherapy, including chronopharmacology, chrononutrition, and chronoexercise, has indicated that timing is important to optimize medical intervention for various diseases. The present review addresses current understanding of the functional roles of the molecular clock with respect to skeletal muscle and the potential of chronotherapy for diseases associated with skeletal muscle.

Keywords: biological rhythm, metabolic syndrome, physical activity, neural signal, chronotherapy

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