Back to Browse Journals » Clinical Ophthalmology » Volume 9

Tear film osmolarity and dry eye disease: a review of the literature

Authors Potvin R, Makari S, Rapuano CJ

Received 27 August 2015

Accepted for publication 24 September 2015

Published 2 November 2015 Volume 2015:9 Pages 2039—2047

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S95242

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Pelin Ozyol

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser

Video abstract presented by author Richard Potvin.

Views: 97

Richard Potvin,1 Sarah Makari,1 Christopher J Rapuano2

1Science in Vision, Akron, NY, USA; 2Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Objective: To evaluate the evidence in the peer-reviewed literature regarding the use of tear osmolarity as a physiological marker to diagnose, grade severity, and track therapeutic response in dry eye disease (DED). In addition, to review the evidence for the role of tear osmolarity in the pathophysiology of DED and ocular surface disease.
Methods: A literature review of all publications after the year 2000, which included the keywords “tear osmolarity”, was conducted. Relevant articles were graded according to quality of evidence and research, using the University of Michigan Practice Guideline and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) rating systems. Articles were further categorized by the nature of any reported financial support and by the overall impression they provided related to tear osmolarity.
Results: A total of 164 articles were identified as relevant to the search criteria, although some were editorials, and some were written in a foreign language. Of the total, it was possible to grade 159, and an overall impression was generated for 163. A positive impression of tear osmolarity in DED diagnosis was evident in 72% (117/163) of all articles, with a neutral impression in a further 21% (35/163); 7% had a negative impression. The percentage of positive impressions appeared independent of the quality of research; 73% (38/52) of articles graded high/moderate quality supported the use of tear film osmolarity measurement in DED diagnosis. Impressions were also independent of the source of financial support, with 72% (75/104) of independent studies positive.
Conclusion: The literature broadly supports the use of tear film osmolarity as an objective numerical measure for diagnosing, grading severity, and managing treatment of DED.

Keywords: TearLab, osmometer, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, dry eye diagnosis

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]

 

Other articles by this author:

Toric intraocular lens orientation and residual refractive astigmatism: an analysis

Potvin R, Kramer BA, Hardten DR, Berdahl JP

Clinical Ophthalmology 2016, 10:1829-1836

Published Date: 20 September 2016

Retreatments after multifocal intraocular lens implantation: an analysis

Gundersen KG, Makari S, Ostenstad S, Potvin R

Clinical Ophthalmology 2016, 10:365-371

Published Date: 1 March 2016

Cataract surgery and methods of wound closure: a review

Matossian C, Makari S, Potvin R

Clinical Ophthalmology 2015, 9:921-928

Published Date: 22 May 2015

A survey of potential and previous cataract-surgery patients: what the ophthalmologist should know

Henderson BA, Solomon K, Masket S, Potvin R, Holland EJ, Cionni R, Sandoval H

Clinical Ophthalmology 2014, 8:1595-1602

Published Date: 25 August 2014

Comparative visual performance with monofocal and multifocal intraocular lenses

Gundersen KG, Potvin R

Clinical Ophthalmology 2013, 7:1979-1985

Published Date: 7 October 2013

Readers of this article also read:

Reassessment of pneumatic retinopexy for primary treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

Cohen E, Zerach A, Mimouni M, Barak A

Clinical Ophthalmology 2015, 9:2033-2037

Published Date: 2 November 2015

Implementation of a vision-screening program in rural northeastern United States

Tsui E, Siedlecki AN, Deng J, Pollard MC, Cha S, Pepin SM, Salcone EM

Clinical Ophthalmology 2015, 9:1883-1887

Published Date: 7 October 2015

Green synthesis of water-soluble nontoxic polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles

Prozorova GF, Pozdnyakov AS, Kuznetsova NP, Korzhova SA, Emel’yanov AI, Ermakova TG, Fadeeva TV, Sosedova LM

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:1883-1889

Published Date: 16 April 2014

Methacrylic-based nanogels for the pH-sensitive delivery of 5-Fluorouracil in the colon

Ashwanikumar N, Kumar NA, Nair SA, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5769-5779

Published Date: 15 November 2012

Cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs in cancer therapy

Deepa G, Thulasidasan AK, Anto RJ, Pillai JJ, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:4077-4088

Published Date: 27 July 2012

Crystallization after intravitreal ganciclovir injection

Pitipol Choopong, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Nattawut Rodanant

Clinical Ophthalmology 2010, 4:709-711

Published Date: 14 July 2010