Targeting bladder tumor cells in voided urine of Chinese patients with FITC-CSNRDARRC peptide ligand
Xing-You Jia1, Qi Yu2, Zhe-Hui Zhang3, Xiao-Feng Yang1
1School of the First Clinical Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China; 2Department of Information Management, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China; 3Research Center for Philosophy of Science and Technology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China
Objective: To study the practicality of the FITC-CSNRDARRC peptide ligand (containing the Cys–Ser–Asn–Arg–Asp–Ala–Arg–Arg–Cys nonapeptide) in diagnosing and monitoring bladder tumors.
Materials and methods: Between March 2011 and September 2011, 80 consecutive patients with radiographic abnormalities, localizing hematuria, other symptoms, or signs were studied using the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand, urinary cytology (UC), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The sensitivity and specificity of these three technologies were determined and compared. Cystoscopy and tissue biopsy were taken as the “gold standards” for bladder tumor diagnosis in this study.
Results: Twenty-nine out of 80 patients were diagnosed with a bladder tumor via histopathological examination. The FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand was positive in 23 out of 29 bladder tumor patients and produced false negatives in six (20.69%) patients. The UC was positive in six out of 29 bladder tumor patients and produced false negatives in 23 (79.31%) patients. The FISH was positive in 21 out of 29 bladder tumor patients and produced false negatives in eight (27.59%) patients. The overall sensitivity as verified by the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand was much higher than in UC (79.31% versus 20.69%, P < 0.001) and was slightly higher than in FISH (79.31% versus 72.41%, P = 0.625). The sensitivity of FISH was significantly higher than that of UC (72.41% versus 20.69%, P < 0.001). Sensitivities of the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand and UC by grade were 58.33% versus 8.3% for low-grade (LG) tumors (P = 0.031) and 94.12% versus 29.41% for high-grade (HG) tumors (P = 0.003), respectively. The advantage was maintained in terms of the detection of invasive tumors between the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand and UC (90.48% versus 23.81%, P = 0.001) as well as between FISH and UC (85.71% versus 23.81%, P = 0.003). The specificities for the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand, UC, and FISH were 100%.
Conclusion: Results show that the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand is a promising noninvasive tool for diagnosis and surveillance in patients suspected of having a new bladder tumor.
Keywords: bladder tumor, tumor-targeting, FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand, fluorescent probe
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