Targeted delivery of tissue plasminogen activator by binding to silica-coated magnetic nanoparticle
Jyh-Ping Chen,1 Pei-Ching Yang,1 Yunn-Hwa Ma,2 Su-Ju Tu,3 Yu-Jen Lu1,4
1Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, 2Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, 3Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 4Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kwei-San, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China
Background and methods: Silica-coated magnetic nanoparticle (SiO2-MNP) prepared by the sol-gel method was studied as a nanocarrier for targeted delivery of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The nanocarrier consists of a superparamagnetic iron oxide core and an SiO2 shell and is characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, superconducting quantum interference device, and thermogravimetric analysis. An amine-terminated surface silanizing agent (3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane) was used to functionalize the SiO2 surface, which provides abundant —NH2 functional groups for conjugating with tPA.
Results: The optimum drug loading is reached when 0.5 mg/mL tPA is conjugated with 5 mg SiO2-MNP where 94% tPA is attached to the carrier with 86% retention of amidolytic activity and full retention of fibrinolytic activity. In vitro biocompatibility determined by lactate dehydrogenase release and cell proliferation indicated that SiO2-MNP does not elicit cytotoxicity. Hematological analysis of blood samples withdrawn from mice after venous administration indicates that tPA-conjugated SiO2-MNP (SiO2-MNP-tPA) did not alter blood component concentrations. After conjugating to SiO2-MNP, tPA showed enhanced storage stability in buffer and operation stability in whole blood up to 9.5 and 2.8-fold, respectively. Effective thrombolysis with SiO2-MNP-tPA under magnetic guidance is demonstrated in an ex vivo thrombolysis model where 34% and 40% reductions in blood clot lysis time were observed compared with runs without magnetic targeting and with free tPA, respectively, using the same drug dosage. Enhanced penetration of SiO2-MNP-tPA into blood clots under magnetic guidance was confirmed from microcomputed tomography analysis.
Conclusion: Biocompatible SiO2-MNP developed in this study will be useful as a magnetic targeting drug carrier to improve clinical thrombolytic therapy.
Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, drug delivery, thrombolysis, tissue plasminogen activator, silica
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