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Targeted delivery of doxorubicin to HER2 positive tumor models

Authors Gomari H, Forouzandeh Moghadam M, Soleimani M, Ghavami M, Khodashenas S

Received 1 April 2019

Accepted for publication 19 June 2019

Published 24 July 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 5679—5690

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S210731

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas Webster


Hosna Gomari,1 Mehdi Forouzandeh Moghadam,1 Masoud Soleimani,2 Mahlegha Ghavami,1 Shabanali Khodashenas3

1Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran; 2Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran; 3Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran

Background: Exosomes are natural nanovesicles with unique characteristics, such as long circulating half-life, the intrinsic ability to target tissues, biocompatibility, and minimal or no inherent systemic toxicity. Mesenchymal stem cells produce large amounts of exosomes with regenerative properties and more stability in human plasma. TUBO breast cancer cell lines overexpress rat HER2/neu protein.
Methods: Targeted exosomes were isolated from transduced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Doxorubicin was encapsulated into exosomes by electroporation. Flow cytometry was used to assess the attachment of exosomes to the target cells. The in vitro cytotoxicity effect of targeted doxorubicin-loaded exosomes on TUBO cells was determined using MTT assay. Selective delivery of doxorubicin to tumor tissues was analyzed by measuring the auto-fluorescence of doxorubicin by in vivo imaging system. Moreover, tumor growth inhibition and body weight were monitored following injection of free doxorubicin, and targeted and untargeted doxorubicin-loaded exosomes in a TUBO breast cancer model. Finally, mouse tissues were examined for the presence of intrinsic fluorescence of doxorubicin.
Results: Flow cytometry results revealed significant differences in binding of targeted exosomes to HER2-positive (46.05%) and HER2-negative (13.9%) cells. The results of MTT assay showed that cytotoxicity of targeted doxorubicin-loaded exosomes was higher than free doxorubicin at 72 hours. Selective distribution of targeted doxorubicin-loaded exosomes in the target tissues of the murine breast cancer model suggested specific delivery of doxorubicin by targeted exosomes, rather than untargeted exosomes. Free doxorubicin and untargeted doxorubicin-loaded exosomes showed insignificant effects, whereas targeted doxorubicin-loaded exosomes reduced the tumor growth rate.
Conclusion: Herein, we report efficient delivery of targeted doxorubicin-loaded exosomes in vitro, corroborated with a significant reduction of murine breast cancer model tumor growth rate.

Keywords: exosome, breast cancer, TUBO, targeted therapy, drug delivery

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