Targeted cancer therapy using engineered exosome as a natural drug delivery vehicle
Authors Gomari H, Forouzandeh Moghadam M, Soleimani M
Received 4 May 2018
Accepted for publication 21 June 2018
Published 12 September 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 5753—5762
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Cho
Hosna Gomari,1 Mehdi Forouzandeh Moghadam,1 Masoud Soleimani2
1Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran; 2Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Purpose: Exosomes are small 30–100 nm vesicles secreted by various cell types. They are released by most cell types, indicating their important role in physiological and pathological processes, including signaling pathways, cell-to-cell communication, tumor progression, and molecule transferring. As natural nanovesicles, exosomes can be a good candidate for drug delivery due to low immunogenicity and ability to enter tissues and even cross the blood–brain barrier. In an effort to improve the efficiency of exosomes for targeted drug delivery with minimal effect on normal cells, we expressed ligands against HER2+ cells.
Methods: To purify exosomes, transduced mesenchymal stromal cells were cultured to reach 80% confluency. Next, the cells were cultured in serum-free media for 48 hours and the supernatant was harvested to purify exosomes. These exosomes were then labeled with PKH67 and added to BT-474, SKBR3 (HER2+), and MDA-MB231 (HER2-), cell lines and their binding to HER2+ was evaluated by flow cytometry. Exosomes were loaded with doxorubicin and quantified using intrinsic fluorescence of doxorubicin at 594 nm.
Results: Targeted exosomes were preferably uptaken by HER2+ cells. Therefore, untargeted exosomes showed lower binding to HER2+ cells compared to their targeted counterparts. MTT assay was performed to analyze cytotoxic effect of exo-DOX (exosome encapsulated with doxorubicin). Efficiency of exo-DOX and free DOX (doxorubicin) delivery with different concentrations, to the BT-474 cell line, was compared, and no significant difference was observed.
Conclusion: Our results imply that targeted exosomes are preferentially uptaken by HER2+ cells relative to HER2- cells and have the potential to be used as an efficient drug delivery system.
Keywords: breast cancer, doxorubicin, HER2+, mesenchymal stem cell
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