Tailoring of PEGylated bilosomes for promoting the transdermal delivery of olmesartan medoxomil: in-vitro characterization, ex-vivo permeation and in-vivo assessment
Authors Albash R, El-Nabarawi MA, Refai H, Abdelbary AA
Received 27 April 2019
Accepted for publication 10 July 2019
Published 15 August 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 6555—6574
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J. Webster
Rofida Albash,1 Mohamed A El-Nabarawi,2 Hanan Refai,1 Aly A Abdelbary2,3
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Manufacturing, Misr University for Science and Technology, Giza, Egypt; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, October 6 University, Giza, Egypt
Introduction: The intention of this work was to load olmesartan medoxomil (OLM), a sparsely water soluble antihypertensive bioactive with low oral bioavailability (26%), into PEGylated bilosomes (PBs) for augmenting its transdermal delivery. PBs contain PEGylated single chain edge activator besides the components of traditional bilosomes (Span 60, cholesterol and bile salts). The PEG gives further resilience to vesicle membrane and is speculated to augment both permeability and bioavailability of OLM.
Methods: A 24 factorial experiment was constructed to inspect the impact of diverse variables on vesicles’ features and sort out the optimal formula adopting Design Expert® software utilizing thin film hydration technique. Vesicles’ evaluation was done by finding out entrapment efficiency percent (EE%), particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP) and amount of drug released after 6 hrs (Q6h). The optimal formula was selected and characterized for further investigations.
Results: The optimal formula (PB15) showed spherical vesicles with EE% of 72.49±0.38%, PS of 559.30±10.70 nm, PDI of 0.57±0.15, ZP of −38.35±0.65 mV and Q6h of 59.60±0.24%. PB15 showed higher deformability index (28.39±5.71 g) compared to traditional bilosomes (5.88±0.90 g) and transethosomes (14.94±0.63 g). Further, PB15 showed superior skin permeation from rat’s skin relative to the drug suspension. Moreover, confocal laser scanning microscopy examination revealed efficient penetration of the fluoro-labeled PB15 through skin. Histopathological study ensured the safety of PB15. In addition, in-vivo skin deposition studies showed higher OLM deposition in rat’s skin from PB15 compared to transethosomes and OLM suspension. Furthermore, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies performed using male Wistar rats and male Albino rabbits, respectively, showed the superiority of PB15 over oral tablets. PB15 was found to have significantly higher AUC0–48 and AUC0–∞ relative to the oral tablets. As well, the relative bioavailability of PB15 was found to be 235.04%.
Conclusion: Overall, the obtained results confirmed the creditable effect of PB15 for transdermal delivery.
Keywords: bilosomes, confocal laser scanning microscopy, ex-vivo permeation, olmesartan medoxomil, pharmacodynamic study, pharmacokinetic study
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