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Systemic side effects of eye drops: a pharmacokinetic perspective

Authors Farkouh A, Frigo P, Czejka M

Received 28 July 2016

Accepted for publication 15 September 2016

Published 7 December 2016 Volume 2016:10 Pages 2433—2441

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S118409

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser


Andre Farkouh,1 Peter Frigo,2 Martin Czejka1,3

1Division of Clinical Pharmacy and Diagnostics, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, 2Department of Gynecologic Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, 3Austrian Society of Applied Pharmacokinetics, Vienna, Austria

Abstract:
When administering eye drops, even when completely correctly applied, several routes of absorption are possible and excess amounts can sometimes cause an unwanted systemic bioavailability of the drops when not completely absorbed into the eye. Furthermore, the concentration of active ingredients in such medicinal preparations is usually very high, so that despite the correct application of the recommended dose, considerable amounts may be absorbed in an unwanted manner through various routes. Children are subject to a much higher risk of systemic side effects because ocular dosing is not weight adjusted and physiological development (eg, liver status) differs from that of adults. There is a lack of information about pediatric dosing in the current literature. This review summarizes the most important clinically relevant systemic side effects that may occur during ophthalmic eye treatments. In this review, we discuss general pharmacokinetic considerations as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and consequences of administering drugs from some important drug groups to the eye.

Keywords: pharmacodynamics, CYP, dosing, children

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