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Synthesis of novel tetravalent galactosylated DTPA-DSPE and study on hepatocyte-targeting efficiency in vitro and in vivo

Authors Xiao Y, Zhang H, Zhang Z, Yan M, Lei M, Zeng K, Zhao C

Received 1 May 2013

Accepted for publication 31 May 2013

Published 12 August 2013 Volume 2013:8(1) Pages 3033—3050

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S47495

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Yan Xiao, Huafang Zhang, Zhaoguo Zhang, Mina Yan, Ming Lei, Ke Zeng, Chunshun Zhao

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China

Abstract: For the purposes of obtaining a hepatocyte-selective drug delivery system, a novel tetravalent galactosylated diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (4Gal-DTPA-DSPE) was synthesized. The chemical structure of 4Gal-DTPA-DSPE was confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The four galactose-modified liposomes (4Gal-liposomes) were prepared by thin-film hydration method, then doxorubicin (DOX) was encapsulated into liposomes using an ammonium sulfate gradient loading method. The liposomal formulations with 4Gal-DTPA-DSPE were characterized by laser confocal scanning microscopy and flow cytometry analysis, and the results demonstrated that the 4Gal-liposomes facilitated the intracellular uptake of DOX into HepG2 cells via asialoglycoprotein receptor-mediated endocytosis. Cytotoxicity assay showed that the cell proliferation inhibition effect of 4Gal-liposomes was higher than that of the conventional liposomes without the galactose. Additionally, pharmacokinetic experiments in rats revealed that the 4Gal-liposomes displayed slower clearance from the systemic circulation compared with conventional liposomes. The organ distributions in mice and the study on frozen sections of liver implied that the 4Gal-liposomes enhanced the intracellular uptake of DOX into hepatocytes and prolonged the circulation. Taken together, these results indicate that liposomes containing 4Gal-DTPA-DSPE have great potential as drug delivery carriers for hepatocyte-selective targeting.

Keywords: targeted drug delivery, liposomes, pharmacokinetics, galactose, ASGP-R, doxorubicin

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