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Synthesis of composite magnetic nanoparticles Fe3O4 with alendronate for osteoporosis treatment

Authors Lee MS, Su C, Yeh J, Wu P, Tsai T, Lou S

Received 10 May 2016

Accepted for publication 24 June 2016

Published 12 September 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 4583—4594


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster

Ming-Song Lee,1,2 Chao-Ming Su,1 Jih-Chao Yeh,1,3 Pei-Ru Wu,4 Tien-Yao Tsai,1 Shyh-Liang Lou1,2

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, 2Department of Nanotechnology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 3Institute of Urology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan

Abstract: Osteoporosis is a result of imbalance between bone formation by osteoblasts and resorption by osteoclasts (OCs). In the present study, we investigated the potential of limiting the aggravation of osteoporosis by reducing the activity of OCs through thermolysis. The proposed method is to synthesize bisphosphonate (Bis)-conjugated iron (II, III) oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles and incorporate them into OCs. The cells should be subsequently exposed to radiofrequency (RF) to induce thermolysis. In this study, particles of Fe3O4 were first synthesized by chemical co-precipitation and then coated with dextran (Dex). The Dex/Fe3O4 particles were then conjugated with Bis to form Bis/Dex/Fe3O4. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the average diameter of the Bis/Dex/Fe3O4 particles was ~20 nm. All three kinds of nanoparticles were found to have cubic inverse spinel structure of Fe3O4 by the X-ray diffraction analysis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed that the Dex/Fe3O4 and Bis/Dex/Fe3O4 nanoparticles possessed their respective Dex and Bis functional groups, while a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer measured the magnetic moment to be 24.5 emu. In addition, the Bis/Dex/Fe3O4 nanoparticles were fully dispersed in double-distilled water. Osteoblasts and OCs were individually cultured with the nanoparticles, and an MTT assay revealed that they were non-cytotoxic. An RF system (42 kHz and 450 A) was used to raise the temperature of the nanoparticles for 20 minutes, and the thermal effect was found to be sufficient to destroy OCs. Furthermore, in vivo studies verified that nanoparticles were indeed magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents and that they accumulated after being injected into the body of rats. In conclusion, we developed a water-dispersible magnetic nanoparticle that had RF-induced thermogenic properties, and the results indicated that the Bis/Dex/Fe3O4 nanoparticle had the potential for controlling osteoporosis.

Keywords: iron oxide, thermotherapy, bisphosphonate, radiofrequency, thermolysis

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