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Synthesis, characterization, applications, and challenges of iron oxide nanoparticles

Authors Ali A, Zafar H, Zia M, ul Haq I, Phull AR, Ali JS, Hussain A

Received 6 November 2015

Accepted for publication 19 April 2016

Published 19 August 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 49—67

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/NSA.S99986

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Sreeprasad Sreenivasan

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Israel (Rudi) Rubinstein


Attarad Ali,1 Hira Zafar,1 Muhammad Zia,1 Ihsan ul Haq,2 Abdul Rehman Phull,3 Joham Sarfraz Ali,1 Altaf Hussain4

1Department of Biotechnology, 2Department of Pharmacy, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 3Department of Biology, Kongju National University, Kongju, South Korea; 4Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Space Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

Abstract: Recently, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted much consideration due to their unique properties, such as superparamagnetism, surface-to-volume ratio, greater surface area, and easy separation methodology. Various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted to synthesize magnetic NPs with suitable surface chemistry. This review summarizes the methods for the preparation of iron oxide NPs, size and morphology control, and magnetic properties with recent bioengineering, commercial, and industrial applications. Iron oxides exhibit great potential in the fields of life sciences such as biomedicine, agriculture, and environment. Nontoxic conduct and biocompatible applications of magnetic NPs can be enriched further by special surface coating with organic or inorganic molecules, including surfactants, drugs, proteins, starches, enzymes, antibodies, nucleotides, nonionic detergents, and polyelectrolytes. Magnetic NPs can also be directed to an organ, tissue, or tumor using an external magnetic field for hyperthermic treatment of patients. Keeping in mind the current interest in iron NPs, this review is designed to report recent information from synthesis to characterization, and applications of iron NPs.

Keywords: superparamagnetism, iron oxide nanoparticles, surfactants, hyperthermia, biodistribution, bioelimination

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