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Synergistic intrafibrillar/extrafibrillar mineralization of collagen scaffolds based on a biomimetic strategy to promote the regeneration of bone defects

Authors Wang Y, Manh N, Wang H, Zhong X, Zhang X, Li C

Received 19 December 2015

Accepted for publication 21 March 2016

Published 12 May 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 2053—2067


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Lei Yang

Yao Wang,1 Ngo Van Manh,1,2 Haorong Wang,1 Xue Zhong,1 Xu Zhang,1 Changyi Li1

1School of Dentistry, Hospital of Stomatology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Thaibinh University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thaibinh, Vietnam

Abstract: The mineralization of collagen scaffolds can improve their mechanical properties and biocompatibility, thereby providing an appropriate microenvironment for bone regeneration. The primary purpose of the present study is to fabricate a synergistically intra- and extrafibrillar mineralized collagen scaffold, which has many advantages in terms of biocompatibility, biomechanical properties, and further osteogenic potential. In this study, mineralized collagen scaffolds were fabricated using a traditional mineralization method (ie, immersed in simulated body fluid) as a control group and using a biomimetic method based on the polymer-induced liquid precursor process as an experimental group. In the polymer-induced liquid precursor process, a negatively charged polymer, carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC), was used to stabilize amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) to form nanocomplexes of CMC/ACP. Collagen scaffolds mineralized based on the polymer-induced liquid precursor process were in gel form such that nanocomplexes of CMC/ACP can easily be drawn into the interstices of the collagen fibrils. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the porous micromorphology and synergistic mineralization pattern of the collagen scaffolds. Compared with simulated body fluid, nanocomplexes of CMC/ACP significantly increased the modulus of the collagen scaffolds. The results of in vitro experiments showed that the cell count and differentiated degrees in the experimental group were higher than those in the control group. Histological staining and micro-computed tomography showed that the amount of new bone regenerated in the experimental group was larger than that in the control group. The biomimetic mineralization will assist us in fabricating a novel collagen scaffold for clinical applications.

Keywords: collagen scaffold, intrafibrillar mineralization, extrafibrillar mineralization, tissue engineering, nanocomplexes

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