Surgical treatment of postintubation tracheal stenosis: Iranian experience of effect of previous tracheostomy
Shahryar Hashemzadeh1, Khosrow Hashemzadeh2, Farzad Kakaei3, Raheleh Aligholipour4, Kamyar Ghabili5
1Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, 2Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Shahid Madani Hospital, 3Department of General Surgery, 4Students Research Committee, 5Medical Philosophy and History Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
Background: Postintubation tracheal stenosis remains the most common indication for tracheal surgery. In the event of a rapid and progressive course of the disease after extubation, surgical approaches such as primary resection and anastomosis or various methods of tracheoplasty should be selected. We report our experience with surgical management of moderate to severe postintubation tracheal stenosis. We also compared intraoperative variables in postintubation tracheal stenosis between those with and without previous tracheostomy.
Methods: Over a 5-year period from June 2005 to July 2010, 50 patients aged 14–64 years with moderate (50%–70% of the lumen) to severe (>70%) postintubation tracheal stenosis underwent resection and primary anastomosis. Patients were followed up to assess the surgical outcome. To study the effect of previous tracheostomy on treatment, surgical variables were compared between patients with previous tracheostomy (group A, n = 27) and those without previous tracheostomy (group B, n = 23).
Results: Resection and primary anastomosis was performed via either cervical incision (45 patients) or right thoracotomy (five patients). In two patients with subglottic stenosis, complete resection of the tracheal lesion and anterior portion of cricoid cartilage was performed, and the remaining trachea was anastomosed to the thyroid cartilage using a Montgomery T-tube. There was only one perioperative death in a patient with a tracheo-innominate fistula. The length of the resected segment, number of resected rings, and subsequent duration of surgery were significantly greater in group A compared with group B (P < 0.05). Six months after surgery, the outcome was satisfactory to excellent in 47 (95.9%) patients.
Conclusion: This surgical approach leads to highly successful results in the treatment of moderate to severe postintubation tracheal stenosis. In addition, previous tracheostomy might prolong the duration of surgery and increase the need for postoperative interventions due to an increase in the length and number of resected tracheal segments. Therefore, in the event of emergency tracheostomy in postintubation tracheal stenosis, insertion of the tracheostomy tube close to the stenotic segment is recommended.
Keywords: trachea, tracheostomy, tracheal stenosis, intubation, tracheal resection
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