Surface engineered polyanhydride-based oral Salmonella subunit nanovaccine for poultry
Received 28 August 2018
Accepted for publication 31 October 2018
Published 30 November 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 8195—8215
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster
Sankar Renu,1,2,* Ashley D Markazi,3,* Santosh Dhakal,1,2 Yashavanth S Lakshmanappa,1,2 Suren R Gourapura,1,2 Revathi Shanmugasundaram,3 Sujata Senapati,4 Balaji Narasimhan,4 Ramesh K Selvaraj,5 Gourapura J Renukaradhya1,2
1Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691, USA; 2Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA; 3Department of Animal Sciences, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691, USA; 4Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA; 5Department of Poultry Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Purpose: Salmonellosis is a severe economic threat in poultry and a public health concern. Currently available vaccines are ineffective, and thus, developing effective oral Salmonella vaccine is warranted. Especially, a potent oral vaccine such as the mucoadhesive polyanhydride nanoparticle (PNP) protects the vaccine cargo and delivers to intestinal immune sites to elicit robust mucosal immunity and mitigate Salmonella colonization and shedding.
Materials and methods: We designed a Salmonella subunit vaccine using PNP containing immunogenic Salmonella outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and flagellar (F) protein-entrapped and surface F-protein-coated PNPs (OMPs-F-PNPs) using a solvent displacement method. Using high-throughput techniques, we characterized the OMPs-F-PNPs physicochemical properties and analyzed its efficacy in layer birds vaccinated orally.
Results: The candidate vaccine was resistant in acidic microenvironment and had ideal physicochemical properties for oral delivery in terms of particle size, charge, morphology, biocompatibility, and pH stability. In vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo studies showed that F-protein surface-anchored nanoparticles were better targeted to chicken immune cells in peripheral blood and splenocytes and intestinal Peyer’s patch sites. In layer chickens inoculated orally with OMPs-F-PNPs, substantially higher OMPs-specific IgG response and secretion of Th1 cytokine IFN-γ in the serum, enhanced CD8+/CD4+ cell ratio in spleen, and increased OMPs-specific lymphocyte proliferation were observed. OMPs-F-PNPs vaccination also upregulated the expression of toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and -4, TGF-β, and IL-4 cytokines’ genes in chicken cecal tonsils (lymphoid tissues). Importantly, OMPs-F-PNPs vaccine cleared Salmonella cecal colonization in 33% of vaccinated birds.
Conclusion: This pilot in vivo study demonstrated the targeted delivery of OMPs-F-PNPs to ileum mucosal immune sites of chickens and induced specific immune response to mitigate Salmonella colonization in intestines.
Keywords: Salmonella antigens, polyanhydride nanoparticles, oral delivery, ileum, chickens
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