Successful testing and treating of HIV/AIDS in Indonesia depends on the addiction treatment modality
Authors Iskandar S, De Jong C, Hidayat T, Siregar IMP, Achmad TH, van Crevel R, Van der Ven A
Received 2 September 2012
Accepted for publication 15 October 2012
Published 14 December 2012 Volume 2012:5 Pages 329—336
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 4
Shelly Iskandar,1–3 Cor AJ de Jong,3 Teddy Hidayat,1 Ike MP Siregar,1 Tri H Achmad,4 Reinout van Crevel,5 Andre Van der Ven5
1Department of Psychiatry, Padjadjaran University/Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia; 2Health Research Unit, Medical Faculty, Padjadjaran Univervisity, 3Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction (NISPA), Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 4Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Padjadjaran University/Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia; 5Department of General Internal Medicine and Nijmegen Institute for Inflammation, Infection and Immunity, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Background: In many settings, people who inject drugs (PWID) have limited access to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care which is provided in several hospitals and primary health centers in big cities. Substance abuse treatment (SAT) can be used as the entry-point to HIV programs. The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of the PWID who had accessed SAT and determine which SAT modality associates significantly with HIV programs.
Methods: PWID were recruited by respondent-driven sampling in an urban setting in Java, Indonesia and interviewed with the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), Blood-Borne Virus Transmission Risk Assessment Questionnaires, and Knowledge Questionnaire on HIV/AIDS. The information regarding the use of substance abuse treatment and HIV program were based on questions in ASI.
Results: Seventy-seven percent of 210 PWID had accessed SAT at least once. PWID who had accessed a SAT modality reported more severe drug problems. The most widely used SAT were opioid substitution (57%) and traditional/faith-based treatment (56%). Accessing substitution treatment (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 5.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.5–13.9) or residential drug-free treatment (adjusted OR = 3.7; 95% CI: 1.4–9.7) was significantly associated with HIV testing, whereas accessing substitution treatment (adjusted OR = 3.8; 95% CI: 1.9–7.5) or other medical services (adjusted OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.1–8.7) was significantly associated with HIV treatment. There was no significant association between accessing traditional/faith-based treatment and HIV testing and treatment.
Conclusion: Efforts should be made to link HIV services with traditional/faith-based treatment to increase the coverage of HIV programs.
Keywords: HIV, addiction treatment, access to care, people who inject drugs