Back to Journals » Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare » Volume 5

Successful testing and treating of HIV/AIDS in Indonesia depends on the addiction treatment modality

Authors Iskandar S, De Jong C, Hidayat T, Siregar IMP, Achmad TH, van Crevel R, Van der Ven A

Received 2 September 2012

Accepted for publication 15 October 2012

Published 14 December 2012 Volume 2012:5 Pages 329—336


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4

Shelly Iskandar,1–3 Cor AJ de Jong,3 Teddy Hidayat,1 Ike MP Siregar,1 Tri H Achmad,4 Reinout van Crevel,5 Andre Van der Ven5

Department of Psychiatry, Padjadjaran University/Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia; 2Health Research Unit, Medical Faculty, Padjadjaran Univervisity, 3Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction (NISPA), Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 4Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Padjadjaran University/Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia; 5Department of General Internal Medicine and Nijmegen Institute for Inflammation, Infection and Immunity, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

Background: In many settings, people who inject drugs (PWID) have limited access to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care which is provided in several hospitals and primary health centers in big cities. Substance abuse treatment (SAT) can be used as the entry-point to HIV programs. The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of the PWID who had accessed SAT and determine which SAT modality associates significantly with HIV programs.
Methods: PWID were recruited by respondent-driven sampling in an urban setting in Java, Indonesia and interviewed with the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), Blood-Borne Virus Transmission Risk Assessment Questionnaires, and Knowledge Questionnaire on HIV/AIDS. The information regarding the use of substance abuse treatment and HIV program were based on questions in ASI.
Results: Seventy-seven percent of 210 PWID had accessed SAT at least once. PWID who had accessed a SAT modality reported more severe drug problems. The most widely used SAT were opioid substitution (57%) and traditional/faith-based treatment (56%). Accessing substitution treatment (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 5.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.5–13.9) or residential drug-free treatment (adjusted OR = 3.7; 95% CI: 1.4–9.7) was significantly associated with HIV testing, whereas accessing substitution treatment (adjusted OR = 3.8; 95% CI: 1.9–7.5) or other medical services (adjusted OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.1–8.7) was significantly associated with HIV treatment. There was no significant association between accessing traditional/faith-based treatment and HIV testing and treatment.
Conclusion: Efforts should be made to link HIV services with traditional/faith-based treatment to increase the coverage of HIV programs.

Keywords: HIV, addiction treatment, access to care, people who inject drugs

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]


Readers of this article also read:

Hematuria following Botox treatment for upper limb spasticity: a case report

Lo TC, Yeung ST, Lee S, Chang EY

Journal of Pain Research 2015, 8:619-622

Published Date: 14 September 2015

Emerging and future therapies for hemophilia

Carr ME, Tortella BJ

Journal of Blood Medicine 2015, 6:245-255

Published Date: 3 September 2015

Green synthesis of water-soluble nontoxic polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles

Prozorova GF, Pozdnyakov AS, Kuznetsova NP, Korzhova SA, Emel’yanov AI, Ermakova TG, Fadeeva TV, Sosedova LM

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:1883-1889

Published Date: 16 April 2014

Methacrylic-based nanogels for the pH-sensitive delivery of 5-Fluorouracil in the colon

Ashwanikumar N, Kumar NA, Nair SA, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5769-5779

Published Date: 15 November 2012

Cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs in cancer therapy

Deepa G, Thulasidasan AK, Anto RJ, Pillai JJ, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:4077-4088

Published Date: 27 July 2012

Crystallization after intravitreal ganciclovir injection

Pitipol Choopong, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Nattawut Rodanant

Clinical Ophthalmology 2010, 4:709-711

Published Date: 14 July 2010