Suboptimal treatment adherence in bipolar disorder: impact on clinical outcomes and functioning
Jose Manuel Montes1, Jorge Maurino2, Consuelo de Dios3, Esteban Medina2
1Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Universitario del Sureste, 2AstraZeneca Medical Department, 3Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain
Background: The primary aim of this study was to assess drug treatment adherence in patients with bipolar disorder and to identify factors associated with adherence. The secondary aim was to analyze the impact of suboptimal adherence on clinical and functional outcomes.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of outpatients receiving an oral antipsychotic drug. Medication adherence was assessed combining the 10-item Drug Attitude Inventory, the Morisky Green Adherence Questionnaire, and the Compliance Rating Scale. Logistic regression was used to determine significant variables associated with suboptimal adherence to medication.
Results: Three hundred and three patients were enrolled into the study. The mean age was 45.9 ± 12.8 years, and 59.7% were females. Sixty-nine percent of patients showed suboptimal adherence. Disease severity and functioning were significantly worse in the suboptimal group than in the adherent group. Multivariate analysis showed depressive polarity of the last acute episode, presence of subsyndromal symptoms, and substance abuse/dependence to be significantly associated with suboptimal treatment adherence (odds ratios 3.41, 2.13, and 1.95, respectively).
Conclusion: A high prevalence of nonadherence was found in an outpatient sample with bipolar disorder. Identification of factors related to treatment adherence would give clinicians the opportunity to select more adequately patients who are eligible for potential adherence-focused interventions.
Keywords: bipolar disorder, treatment adherence, functioning, polarity, subsyndromal symptoms