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Subcutaneous adipose tissue plays a beneficial effect on subclinical atherosclerosis in young survivors of acute lymphocytic leukemia

Authors Siviero-Miachon AA, Spinola-Castro A, de Martino Lee ML, de Castro Monteiro CM, Carvalho AC, Calixto A, Geloneze B, Guerra-Junior G

Received 18 April 2015

Accepted for publication 16 June 2015

Published 18 August 2015 Volume 2015:11 Pages 479—488

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S86883

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Daniel Duprez


Adriana Aparecida Siviero-Miachon,1,2 Angela Maria Spinola-Castro,1,2 Maria Lucia de Martino Lee,2 Carlos Manoel de Castro Monteiro,3 Antonio Carlos de Camargo Carvalho,4 Antonio Ramos Calixto,5 Bruno Geloneze,5 Gil Guerra-Junior6

1Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), 2Pediatric Oncology Institute – IOP/GRAACC, Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), 3Private Office, Castro Monteiro, Sao Paulo, 4Division of Cardiology, Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), 5Laboratory of Investigation on Metabolism and Diabetes (LIMED), Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), 6Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition, metabolic profile, adipokines, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in young survivors of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL).
Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study compared 55 ALL survivors, of chronological age between 15 years and 24 years, assigned into two groups according to the exposure to cranial radiation therapy (CRT; 25 irradiated and 30 nonirradiated) with 24 leukemia-free controls, and assessed body fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), computed tomography scan-derived abdominal adipose tissue, lipid profile, blood pressure (BP), adipokines, and cIMT by a multiple regression analysis.
Results: Treatment with CRT had an effect on all of the variables derived from the computed tomography scan: visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (P<0.050). In a multiple linear regression model, cIMT positively correlated with exposure to CRT (P=0.029), diastolic BP (P=0.016), and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (P=0.048), while negatively related to SAT (P=0.007).
Conclusion: In young survivors of childhood ALL, CRT modified the distribution of fat and played a critical role in determining cIMT. Leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, a biomarker of abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome, and diastolic BP also influenced cIMT, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Nonetheless, adiposity-associated vascular disease might be attenuated by SAT. Changes in body fat must be evaluated in this group of patients in the early course of survivorship in order to avoid premature cardiovascular disease associated with atherosclerosis. Yet, further research as regards the possible protective effect of SAT on vascular disease is warranted.

Keywords: precursor cell lymphoblastic leukemia–lymphoma/radiotherapy, abdominal fat, metabolic syndrome X, adipokines, endothelium, atherosclerosis

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