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Streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes in rodents as a model for studying mitochondrial mechanisms of diabetic β cell glucotoxicity

Authors Wu J, Yan L

Received 5 February 2015

Accepted for publication 5 March 2015

Published 2 April 2015 Volume 2015:8 Pages 181—188


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Professor Ming-Hui Zou

Jinzi Wu, Liang-Jun Yan

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNT System College of Pharmacy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA

Abstract: Chronic hyperglycemia and the corresponding glucotoxicity are the main pathogenic mechanisms of diabetes and its complications. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic animal models are useful platforms for the understanding of β cell glucotoxicity in diabetes. As diabetes induced by a single STZ injection is often referred to as type 1 diabetes that is caused by STZ’s partial destruction of pancreas, one question often being asked is whether the STZ type 1 diabetes animal model is a good model for studying the mitochondrial mechanisms of β cell glucotoxicity. In this mini review, we provide evidence garnered from the literature that the STZ type 1 diabetes is indeed a suitable model for studying mitochondrial mechanisms of diabetic β cell glucotoxicity. Evidence presented includes: 1) continued β cell derangement is due to chronic hyperglycemia after STZ is completely eliminated out of the body; 2) STZ diabetes can be reversed by insulin treatment, which indicates that β cell responds to treatment and shows ability to regenerate; and 3) STZ diabetes can be ameliorated or alleviated by administration of phytochemicals. In addition, mechanisms of STZ action and fundamental gaps in understanding mitochondrial mechanisms of β cell dysfunction are also discussed.

Keywords: diabetes, β cell, glucotoxicity, mitochondria, redox imbalance, streptozotocin

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