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Stem cell treatment for avascular necrosis of the femoral head: current perspectives

Authors Houdek MT, Wyles CC, Martin JR, Sierra RJ

Received 15 January 2014

Accepted for publication 4 February 2014

Published 9 April 2014 Volume 2014:7 Pages 65—70

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/SCCAA.S36584

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Matthew T Houdek,1 Cody C Wyles,2 John R Martin,1 Rafael J Sierra1

1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, 2School of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA

Abstract: Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head is a progressive disease that predominantly affects younger patients. Although the exact pathophysiology of AVN has yet to be elucidated, the disease is characterized by a vascular insult to the blood supply of the femoral head, which can lead to collapse of the femoral head and subsequent degenerative changes. If AVN is diagnosed in the early stages of the disease, it may be possible to attempt surgical procedures which preserve the hip joint, including decompression of the femoral head augmented with concentrated bone marrow. The use of autologous stem cells has shown promise in halting the progression of AVN of the femoral head, and subsequently preventing young patients from undergoing total hip arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to review the current use of stem cells for the treatment of AVN of the femoral head.

Keywords: avascular necrosis, femoral head, osteonecrosis, stem cells, concentrated bone marrow

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